1859, name of a method (developed by J.Y. Simpson) of stopping surgical bleeding by pinning or wiring the artery shut, from Latin acus "a needle" (from PIE root *ak- "be sharp, rise (out) to a point, pierce") + pressure (n.). From 1958 in reference to the oriental body therapy also known as shiatsu (said to mean literally "finger-pressure" in Japanese).
c. 1600, "belonging to the earliest age or stage," from Medieval Latin primalis "primary," from Latin primus "first" (see prime (adj.)). Psychological sense, in reference to Freud's theory of behaviors springing from the earliest stage of emotional development, is attested from 1918. Primal scream in psychology is from a best-selling book of 1971 (Arthur Janov, "The Primal Scream. Primal Therapy: The Cure for Neurosis"). Related: Primality.
1590s, "a turning away from;" 1650s in the figurative sense of "mental attitude of repugnance or opposition," from French aversion (16c.) and directly from Latin aversionem (nominative aversio), noun of action from past-participle stem of aversus "turned away, backwards, behind, hostile," itself past participle of avertere "to turn away" (see avert). Aversion therapy in psychology is from 1946.
also eurhythmic, "harmonious," 1831, from Greek eurythmia "rhythmical order," from eurythmos "rhythmical, well-proportioned," from eu "well, good" (see eu-) + rhythmos "measured flow or movement, rhythm; proportion, symmetry" (see rhythm). Related: Eurythmics (also eurhythmics), "system of rhythmical body movement to music, used as therapy or to teach musical understanding," developed by Swiss music educator Émile Jaques-Dalcroze; eurythmy.
"the theory or therapy of treating mental disorders by investigating unconscious elements and bringing repressed fears and conflicts to the patient's awareness," from Psychoanalyse, coined 1896 in French by Freud from Latinized form of Greek psykhē "the soul, mind, spirit; understanding" (see psyche) + German Analyse, from Greek analysis (see analysis). Freud earlier used psychische analyse (1894).
early 15c., phisical, "medicinal" (opposed to surgical), from Medieval Latin physicalis "of nature, natural," from Latin physica "study of nature" (see physic).
The meaning "pertaining to matter, of or pertaining to what is perceived by the senses" is from 1590s; the meaning "having to do with the body, corporeal, pertaining to the material part or structure of an organized being" (as opposed to mental or moral) is attested from 1780. The sense of "characterized by bodily attributes or activities, being or inclined to be bodily aggressive or violent" is attested from 1970. Physical education is recorded by 1838; the abbreviated form phys ed is by 1955. Physical therapy is from 1922. Related: Physically.
1560s, "violent encounter of armed forces or a pair of warriors," a military term, from French choc "violent attack," from Old French choquer "strike against," probably from Frankish, from a Proto-Germanic imitative base (compare Middle Dutch schokken "to push, jolt," Old High German scoc "jolt, swing").
Meaning "a sudden blow" is from 1610s; meaning "a sudden and disturbing impression on the mind" is from 1705. Sense of "feeling of being (mentally) shocked" is from 1876. Medical sense is attested from 1804 (it also once meant "seizure, stroke," 1794). Shock-absorber is attested from 1906 (short form shocks attested by 1961); shock wave is from 1907. Shock troops (1917) translates German stoßtruppen and preserves the word's original military sense. Shock therapy is from 1917; shock treatment from 1938.
mid-14c., originally of religion, "a radical and complete change in spirit, purpose, and direction of life away from sin and toward love of God," from Old French conversion "change, transformation, entry into religious life; way of life, behavior; dwelling, residence; sexual intercourse," from Latin conversionem (nominative conversio) "a turning round, revolving; alteration, change," noun of action from past-participle stem of convertere "to turn around; to transform," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + vertere "to turn" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend").
Sense of "a change from one religion to another" (especially to Christianity) is from c. 1400 in English. General sense of "transformation, a turning or changing from one state to another" is from early 15c. In reference to the use of a building, from 1921. Conversion disorder "hysteria" (attested from 1946 but said to have been coined by Freud) was in DSM-IV (1994). Conversion therapy in reference to homosexuality is by 1979.