Etymology
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Deneb 

bright star in the tail of the constellation Cygnus the Swan, by 1741, from Arabic Al Dhanab al Dajajah "the Hen's Tail."

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canticle (n.)
"short hymn," early 13c., from Latin canticulum "a little song," diminutive of canticum "song" (also a scene in Roman comedy enacted by one person and accompanied by music and dancing), from cantus "song, a singing; bird-song," from past participle stem of canere "to sing" (from PIE root *kan- "to sing").
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alb (n.)
late Old English albe "white linen robe" worn by priests, converts, etc., from Late Latin alba (in tunica alba or vestis alba "white vestment"), fem. of albus "white," from PIE root *albho- "white" (source also of Greek alphos "white leprosy," alphiton "barley meal;" Old High German albiz, Old English elfet "swan," literally "the white bird;" Old Church Slavonic and Russian lebedi, Polish łabędź "swan;" Hittite alpash "cloud").
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cygnet (n.)

"a young swan," c. 1400, also signet before 17c., from Anglo-French cignet (mid-14c.), Anglo-Latin cygnettus, diminutives of Old French cigne, cisne "swan" (12c., Modern French cygne), from Latin cygnus, from Greek kyknos, which has been the subject of "abundant discussion" (Beekes) and is perhaps from PIE *(s)keuk- "to be white" (compare Sanskrit socati "to lighten, glow," sukra- "light, clear, white"). Spanish, Portuguese cisne, Italian cecero are from Medieval Latin cecinus, cicinus, a corruption of the classical Latin word.

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chanson (n.)

"a song, a short, simple poem intended to be sung," c. 1600, from French chanson, from Old French chançon "song, epic poem" (12c.), from Latin cantionem (nominative cantio) "song," from past participle stem of canere "to sing" (from PIE root *kan- "to sing").

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volkslied (n.)
"folk-song," 1858, from German Volkslied, from Volk "people" (see folk (n.)) + Lied "song" (see laud (v.)).
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melody (n.)

c. 1300, melodie, "vocal or instrumental music, a succession of agreeable musical sounds," from Old French melodie "music, song, tune" (12c.) and directly from Late Latin melodia "a pleasant song" (in Medieval Latin also "music" generally), from Greek melōidia "a singing, a chanting; a choral song, a tune for lyric poetry," from melos "song, part of song; limb, member" (a word of uncertain origin) + ōidē "song, ode" (see ode). From late 14c. as "a song of clear and balanced form." Sense of "a series of tones so related to one another as to produce a distinct musical phrase or idea, a tune" is by c. 1600. Meaning "the principal voice-part in a harmonic composition" is by 1880.

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hymn (n.)
"religious song," c. 1000, from Old French ymne and Old English ymen, both from Late Latin hymnus "song of praise," from Greek hymnos "festive song or ode in praise of gods or heroes" (also sometimes of mournful songs), used in Septuagint to translate several Hebrew words meaning "song praising God." Possibly a variant of hymenaios "wedding song," from Hymen, Greek god of marriage, or, as per Watkins, from a PIE root *sam- "to sing" (source also of Hittite išhamai "he sings," Sanskrit saman- "hymn, song"). Evidence for the silent -n- dates from at least 1530.
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lay (n.1)
"short song," mid-13c., from Old French lai "song, lyric," of unknown origin. Perhaps from Celtic (compare Irish laid "song, poem," Gaelic laoidh "poem, verse, play") because the earliest verses so called were Arthurian ballads, but OED finds this "out of the question" and prefers a theory which traces it to a Germanic source, such as Old High German leich "play, melody, song."
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Melpomene 

Muse of tragedy, originally of song and musical harmony, from Latin, from Greek Melpomene, literally "songstress," from melpein "to sing, to celebrate with song and dance," a word of unknown origin.

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