Etymology
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conjugal (adj.)

1540s, "pertaining to marriage, nuptial," also "pertaining to the relationship of husband and wife," from French conjugal (13c.), from Latin coniugalis "relating to marriage," from coniunx (genitive coniugis) "spouse," which is related to coniugare "to join together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + iugare "to join," from iugum "yoke" (from PIE root *yeug- "to join"). Related: Conjugacy; conjugality.

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divorce (v.)

c. 1400, divorcen, "to put away or abandon (a spouse); to dissolve the marriage contract between by process of law," from Old French divorcer, from divorce (see divorce (n.)). Extended sense of "release or sever from any close connection" is from early 15c. Related: Divorced; divorcing.

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polygamous (adj.)

"relating to or characterized by polygamy," especially in reference to a marriage including more than one spouse of either sex, 1610s, from polygamy + -ous, or else from Late Greek polygamos "often married." In zoology, "mating with more than one individual." Related: Polygamously.

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infidelity (n.)

c. 1400, "want of faith, unbelief in religion; false belief, paganism;" also (early 15c.) "unfaithfulness or disloyalty to a person" (originally to a sovereign, by 16c. to a lover or spouse), from French infidélité (12c.) or directly from Latin infidelitatem (nominative infidelitas) "unfaithfulness, faithlessness," noun of quality from infidelis "unfaithful, unbelieving" (see infidel).

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simpleton (n.)

"person of limited or feeble intelligence," 1640s, according to OED probably a jocular formation from simple and -ton, suffix extracted from surnames (and ultimately place-names). Compare skimmington, personification of an ill-used spouse, c. 1600; OED compares idleton from the English Dialect Dictionary. Century Dictionary sees it as a French diminutive of simplet, though no such diminutive had yet turned up. Also compare the -by terminations under rudesby.

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connivence (n.)

"act of conniving, an overlooking of a disreputable or illegal action, often implying private approval," especially, in divorce law, "corrupt consent of a married person to that conduct of the spouse of which complaint is later made," 1590s, from French connivence or directly from Latin conniventia, from conniventem (nominative connivens), present participle of connivere "to wink," hence, "to wink at (a crime), be secretly privy" (see connive). According to OED, the spelling with -a- prevailed after early 18c. but is unetymological.

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espouse (v.)

mid-15c., "to take as spouse, marry," from Old French espouser "marry, take in marriage, join in marriage" (11c., Modern French épouser), from Latin sponsare, past participle of spondere "make an offering, perform a rite, promise secretly," hence "to engage oneself by ritual act" (see sponsor (n.)). Extended sense of "adopt, embrace" a cause, party, etc., is from 1620s. Related: Espoused; espouses; espousing. For initial e-, see e-.

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Gaia (n.)

Earth as a goddess, from Greek Gaia, spouse of Uranus, mother of the Titans, personification of gaia "earth" (as opposed to heaven), "land" (as opposed to sea), "a land, country, soil;" it is a collateral form of (Dorian ga) "earth," which is of unknown origin and perhaps from a pre-Indo-European language of Greece. The Roman equivalent goddess of the earth was Tellus (see tellurian), sometimes used in English poetically or rhetorically for "Earth personified" or "the Earth as a planet."

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disloyal (adj.)

early 15c. (implied in disloyally), "not true to one's allegiance" (to a sovereign, state, or government), from Old French desloial, desleal "treacherous, false, deceitful" (Modern French déloyal), from des- "not, opposite of" (see dis-) + loial "of good quality; faithful; honorable; law-abiding; legitimate, born in wedlock," from Latin legalem, from lex "law" (see legal). Sometimes also "not true to one's obligations or engagements," especially to a lover, spouse, or friend, (late 15c.), but this sense is rare.

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faithful (adj.)

early 14c., "sincerely religious, devout, pious," especially in reference to Christian practice; mid-14c., "loyal (to a lord, friend, spouse, etc.); true; honest, trustworthy," from faith + -ful. From late 14c. in reference to a tale, a report, etc., "accurate, reliable, true to the facts." The noun sense of "true believer, one who is full of faith" is from late 14c. (Church Latin used fideles in same sense). Related: Faithfully; faithfulness. Old Faithful geyser named 1870 by explorer Gen. Henry Dana Washburn, surveyor-general of the Montana Territory, in reference to the regularity of its outbursts.

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