Etymology
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mononuclear (adj.)

"having a single nucleus," 1866; see mono- "single" + nuclear.

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monograph (n.)

"treatise on a single subject, account or description of a single thing," 1805, from mono- "single" + -graph "something written." Earlier in this sense was monography (1773). Related: Monographic; monographist; monographer (1770).

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monoculture (n.)

"cultivation of a single crop when others are possible," 1915, from French (c. 1900); see  mono- "single" + culture (n.).

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mono- 

word-forming element of Greek origin meaning "one, single, alone; containing one (atom, etc.)," from Greek monos "single, alone," from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated."

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haploid (adj.)
"having a single set of unpaired chromosomes," 1908, from German haploid (Strasburger, 1905), from Greek haploos "single, simple" (see haplo-) + -oid.
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monoplane (n.)

1907, a hybrid coined from mono- "single" + second element of aeroplane. In old planes the wings formed a single surface running across the fuselage.

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one-act (adj.)

of a play, "consisting of a single act," 1888, from one + act (n.).

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monochrome (n.)

1660s, "painting or drawing done in different tints of a single color," from Latinized form of Greek monokhrōmos, also monokhrōmatos, "of a single color," from monos "single, alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated") + khrōma (genitive khrōmatos) "color, complexion, skin" (see chroma). As an adjective from 1849. Photographic sense is recorded from 1940.

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monolith (n.)

"monument consisting of a single large block of stone," 1829, from French monolithe (16c.), from Latin monolithus (adj.) "consisting of a single stone," from Greek monolithos "made of one stone," from monos "single, alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated") + lithos "stone" (see litho-). Transferred and figurative use in reference to a thing or person noted for indivisible unity is from 1934.

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katana (n.)
type of long, single-edged sword, 1610s, from Japanese.
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