Etymology
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thyroid (adj.)

1690s (in reference to both the cartilage and the gland), from Greek thyreoeides "shield-shaped" (in khondrosthyreoeides "shield-shaped cartilage," used by Galen to describe the "Adam's apple" in the throat), from thyreos "oblong, door-shaped shield" (from thyra "door," from PIE root *dhwer- "door, doorway") + -eides "form, shape" (see -oid). The noun, short for thyroid gland, is recorded from 1849.

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volcanic (adj.)
1774, from French volcanique, from Italian vulcanico, from vulcano (see volcano). Figurative sense of "prone to explosive activity" is attested from 1854.
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swashbuckler (n.)
also swash-buckler, 1550s, "blustering, swaggering fighting man" (earlier simply swash, 1540s), from swash "fall of a blow" (see swash) + buckler "shield." The original sense seems to have been "one who makes menacing noises by striking his or an opponent's shield."
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target (v.)
"to use as a target," 1837, from target (n.). Earlier it meant "to shield" (1610s). Related: Targeted; targeting.
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scutcheon (n.)

"shield for armorial bearings," mid-14c., short for escutcheon.

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Vesuvius 
volcano near Naples, of unknown origin; perhaps from Celtic root *ves- "mountain" or Oscan fesf "smoke, steam." Related: Vesuvian.
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Scutum 

constellation, added 1687 by Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius, originally Scutum Sobiescanum "Shield of (King John) Sobeski," the 17c. Polish monarch famous as the savior of Christendom for his victory over the Ottomans at the Battle of Vienna (1683). The name was later shortened. From Latin scutum "shield" (see escutcheon). Middle English had scutifer "shield-bearer (late 14c.), from Medieval Latin.

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face-plate (n.)
"protective cover, shield," 1874, from face (n.) + plate (n.).
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hoplite (n.)
"heavy-armed foot soldier of ancient Greece," 1727, from Greek hoplites "heavy-armed," as a noun, "heavy-armed soldier, man-at-arms," from hopla "arms and armor, gear for war," plural of hoplon "tool, weapon, implement." One who carries a large shield, as opposed to a peltastes, so called for his small, light shield (pelte).
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Kilimanjaro 

dormant volcano in Tanzania, it is the highest mountain in Africa. The name is of unknown origin; the first element appears to be Swahili kilima "(little) mountain," but even this is uncertain.  See J.A. Hutchinson, "The Meaning of Kilimanjaro," in Tanganyika Notes and Records, 1965.

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