Etymology
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overshadow (v.)

Old English ofersceadwian "to cast a shadow over, obscure;" see over + shadow (v.). It was used to render Latin obumbrare in New Testament, as were Middle High German überschatewen, Middle Dutch overschaduwen, Gothic ufarskadwjan in those languages. Figurative sense is from 1580s. Related: Overshadowed; overshadowing.

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*skoto- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "dark, shade." 

It forms all or part of: nightshade; scotoma; shade; shadow; shady.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek skotos "darkness, gloom;" Albanian kot "darkness;" Old Irish scath, Old Welsh scod, Breton squeut "darkness," Gaelic sgath "shade, shadow, shelter;" Old English scead "partial darkness," sceadu "shade, shadow, darkness," Dutch schaduw, German Schatten, Gothic skadus "shadow." 

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penumbra (n.)

1660s, "partially shaded region around the shadow of an opaque body, a partial shadow," from Modern Latin penumbra "partial shadow outside the complete shadow of an eclipse," coined 1604 by Kepler from Latin pæne "nearly, almost, practically," which is of uncertain origin, + umbra "shadow" (see umbrage). Figurative use is by 1801. Related: Penumbral.

All points within the penumbra are excluded from the view of some part of the luminous body, and are thus partially shaded; while all points within the umbra, or total shadow, are completely excluded from view of the luminous body. [Century Dictionary]
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Ascians (n.)
inhabitants of the torrid zone, 1630s, from Medieval Latin Ascii, from Greek askioi, from a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + skia "shade, shadow," which Beekes derives from PIE *skhieh- "shadow" (source also of Sanskrit chaya "shadow," also "image;" Persian saya "shadow," Albanian hie "shadow"). So called because they "haue the Sunne twice euery yeere in their zenith, and then they make no shaddowes at all" [Nathanael Carpenter, "Geographie Delineated forth in Two Bookes," 1635].
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sciamachy (n.)
"fighting with shadows, shadow-boxing" 1620s, from Greek skiamakhia "shadow-fighting, a sham fight" but perhaps literally "fighting in the shade" (i.e., in school; ancient teachers taught in shaded public places such as porches and groves), from skia "shade, shadow" (see Ascians) + makhe "battle" (see -machy).
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adumbration (n.)

1550s, "faint sketch, imperfect representation," from Latin adumbrationem (nominative adumbratio) "a sketch in shadow, sketch, outline," noun of action from past-participle stem of adumbrare "to cast a shadow, overshadow," in painting, "represent (a thing) in outline," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + umbrare "to cast in shadow," from PIE root *andho- "blind; dark" (see umbrage).

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Amphiscians (n.)
1620s, from Medieval Latin Amphiscii, from Greek amphiskioi "inhabitants of the tropics," literally "throwing a shadow both ways," from amphi "on both sides" (from PIE root *ambhi- "around") + skia "shadow, shade" (see Ascians). Inhabitants of torrid zones, so called because they are "people whose shadow is sometimes to the North, and sometimes to the South" [Cockerham, 1623] depending on the sun being below or above the equator. Compare Ascians.
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somber (adj.)

1760 "gloomy, shadowy" (earlier sombrous, c. 1730), from French sombre "dark, gloomy," from Old French sombre (14c.), from an adjective from Late Latin subumbrare "to shadow," from sub "under" (see sub-) + umbra "shade, shadow" (perhaps from a suffixed form of PIE *andho- "blind, dark;" see umbrage). Related: Somberly; somberness.

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umbra (n.)
1590s, "phantom, ghost," a figurative use from Latin umbra "shade, shadow" (see umbrage). Astronomical sense of "shadow cast by the earth or moon during an eclipse" is first recorded 1670s. Meaning "an uninvited guest accompanying an invited one" is from 1690s in English, from a secondary sense among the Romans. Related: Umbral.
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umbel (n.)
1590s in botany, from Latin umbella "parasol, sunshade," diminutive of umbra "shade, shadow" (see umbrage).
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