Etymology
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grate (v.)
"to scrape, rub," late 14c. (implied in grated), from Old French grater "to scrape, scratch (out or off); erase; destroy, pull down" (Modern French gratter), from Frankish *kratton, from Proto-Germanic *krattojan (source also of Old High German krazzon "to scratch, scrape," German kratzen "to scratch," Swedish kratta, Danish kratte "to rake, scrape"), probably of imitative origin. Senses of "sound harshly," and "annoy" are mid-16c. Italian grattare also is from Germanic. Related: Grated; grating.
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raze (v.)

1540s, "completely destroy," an alteration of racen "pull or knock down" (a building or town), from earlier rasen (14c.), etymologically "to scratch, slash, scrape, erase," from Old French raser "to scrape, shave," from Medieval Latin rasare, frequentative of Latin radere (past participle rasus) "to scrape, shave." This has cognates in Welsh rhathu, Breton rahein "to scrape, shave." Watkins says it is "possibly" from an extended form of the PIE root *red- "to scrape, scratch, gnaw." But de Vaan writes, "Since this word family is only found in Italo-Celtic, a PIE origin is uncertain." From 1560s as "shave off, remove by scraping," also "cut or wound slightly, graze." Related: Razed; razing.

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xyster (n.)
"surgical instrument for scraping bones," 1680s, from Greek xyster "a graving tool," from xyein "to scrape." Beekes compare Sanskrit ksnauti "to grind, whet, rub," Lithuanian skusti "to shave, plane." Perhaps from a PIE *kes- "to scrape."
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*red- 

*rēd-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to scrape, scratch, gnaw."

It forms (possibly) all or part of: abrade; abrasion; corrode; corrosion; erase; erode; erosion; radula; rascal; rase; rash (n.) "eruption of small red spots on skin;" raster; rat; raze; razor; rodent; rostrum; tabula rasa.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit radati "scrapes, gnaws," radanah "tooth;" Latin rodere "to gnaw, eat away," radere "to scrape;" Welsh rhathu "scrape, polish."

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abrasion (n.)
Origin and meaning of abrasion

1650s, "act of abrading," from Medieval Latin abrasionem (nominative abrasio) "a scraping," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin abradere "to scrape away, shave off," from ab "off" (see ab-) + radere "to scrape" (see raze (v.)). From 1740 as "result of abrasion."

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rash (n.)

"eruption of small red spots on skin," 1709, perhaps from French rache "a sore" (Old French rasche "rash, scurf"), from Vulgar Latin *rasicare "to scrape" (also source of Old Provençal rascar, Spanish rascar "to scrape, scratch," Italian raschina "itch"), a variant of classical Latin rasitare, from Latin rasus "scraped," past participle of radere "to scrape" (see raze (v.)). The connecting notion would be of itching. The figurative sense of "any sudden outbreak or proliferation" is recorded by 1820.

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rase (v.)

late 14c., "remove by scraping, rub, erase," especially "to remove writing by scruaping it out," from Old French raser "to scrape, shave," from Medieval Latin rasare, frequentative of Latin radere (past participle rasus) "to scrape, shave" (see raze (v.)). Meaning "level to the ground or the supporting surface" is from 1530s (compare raze). Related: Rased; rasing.

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gratin (n.)
light crust over a dish, 1806 (in au gratin), from French gratin "crust" (16c.), from gratter "to scrape, scratch" (see grate (v.)).
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scabrous (adj.)

1570s, "harsh, unmusical" (implied in scabrously), from Late Latin scabrosus "rough," from Latin scaber "rough, scaly," related to scabere "to scratch, scrape" (from PIE *(s)kep- "to cut, scrape, hack;" see scabies).

The sense in English evolved to "vulgar" (by 1881), "squalid" (by 1939), and "nasty, repulsive" (by 1951). The etmological sense of "rough, rugged, having little sharp points" is attested in English from 1650s. Related: Scabrousness.

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grind (v.)

Old English grindan "to rub together, crush into powder, grate, scrape," forgrindan "destroy by crushing" (class III strong verb; past tense grand, past participle grunden), from Proto-Germanic *grindanan (source also of Dutch grenden), related to ground (v.), from PIE *ghrendh- "to grind" (source also of Latin frendere "to gnash the teeth," Greek khondros "corn, grain," Lithuanian grendu, gręsti "to scrape, scratch"). Meaning "to make smooth or sharp by friction" is from c. 1300. Most other Germanic languages use a verb cognate with Latin molere (compare Dutch malen, Old Norse mala, German mahlen).

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