Etymology
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palatinate (n.)

"the office or province of a palatine ruler," 1650s, from palatine + -ate (1). In England and Ireland, a county palatine; also used of certain American colonies (Carolina, Maryland, Maine).

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sultan (n.)

1550s, from French sultan "ruler of Turkey" (16c.), ultimately from Arabic (Semitic) sultan "ruler, prince, monarch, king, queen," originally "power, dominion." According to Klein's sources, this is from Aramaic shultana "power," from shelet "have power." Earlier English word was soldan, soudan (c. 1300), used indiscriminately of Muslim rulers and sovereigns, from Old French souldan, soudan, from Medieval Latin sultanus. Related: Sultanic.

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autarchy (n.)

1660s, "absolute sovereignty," from Latinized form of Greek autarkhia, from autarkhein "to be an absolute ruler," from autos "self" (see auto-) + arkhein "to rule" (see archon).

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potentate (n.)

c. 1400, potentat, "a ruler, lord, prince, monarch; person who possesses independent power or sway," from Old French potentat and directly from Late Latin potentatus "a ruler," also "political power," from Latin potentatus "might, power, rule, dominion," from potentem (nominative potens) "powerful," from potis "powerful, able, capable; possible;" of persons, "better, preferable; chief, principal; strongest, foremost," from PIE root *poti- "powerful; lord." 

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Eliot 

surname, Old French diminutive of Elias (French Elie; see Elijah) + -ot. It absorbed the Anglo-Saxon proper names Æðelgeat and Ælfweald "Elf-ruler."

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tetrarch (n.)

late Old English tetrarche "ruler of one of four divisions of a kingdom or province," from Late Latin tetrarcha, from tetrarches, from Greek tetrarkhes "leader of four companies, ruler of four provinces," from tetra- "four" (from PIE root *kwetwer- "four") + arkhein "to rule" (see archon). Applied generally to subordinate rulers in the Roman Empire, especially in Syria. Related: Tetrarchy.

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Angola 

country in southwest Africa, a former Portuguese colony, from N'gola, title of the native ruler there when the Portuguese made contact. Related: Angolan.

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Henry 

masc. proper name, from French Henri, from Late Latin Henricus, from German Heinrich, from Old High German Heimerich, literally "the ruler of the house," from heim "home" (see home (n.)) + rihhi "ruler" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule"). One of the most popular Norman names after the Conquest. Related: Henrician.

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chef (n.)

"head cook," 1842, from French chef, short for chef de cuisine, literally "head of the kitchen," from Old French chief "leader, ruler, head" (see chief (n.)).

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Mozambique 

country in southeastern Africa, former Portuguese colony, from a Portuguese corruption of Arabic musa malik "King Musa," the name of an early African ruler there. Related: Mozambican; Mozambiquer.

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