Etymology
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jet (n.1)

1690s, "stream of water," from French jet "a throw, a cast; a gush, spurt (of water); a shoot (of a plant)," from jeter "to throw, thrust" (from PIE root *ye- "to throw, impel"). Middle English had jet/get "a device, mode, manner, fashion, style" (early 14c.).

Sense of "spout or nozzle for emitting water, gas, fuel, etc." is from 1825. Hence jet propulsion (1855, originally in reference to water) and the noun meaning "airplane driven by jet propulsion" (1944, from jet engine, 1943). The first one in service was the German Messerschmitt Me 262. Jet set first attested 1951, shortly before jet commuter plane flights began. Jet age is attested from 1952. The atmospheric jet stream is from 1947.

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arugula (n.)

edible cruciform plant (Eruca sativa) used originally in the Mediterranean region as a salad, 1967, the American English and Australian form of the name (via Italian immigrants), from a dialectal variant of Italian ruchetta, a diminutive form of ruca-, from Latin eruca, a name of some cabbage-like plant (from PIE *gher(s)-uka-, from root *ghers- "to bristle;" for which see horror).

In England, the usual name is rocket (see rocket (n.1)), which is from Italian ruchetta via French roquette. It also sometimes is called hedge mustard.

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Exocet (n.)

1970, proprietary name of a rocket-propelled short-range guided missile, trademarked 1970 by Société Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale, from French exocet "flying fish" (16c.), from Latin exocoetus, from Greek exokoitos "sleeping fish, fish that sleeps upon the beach," from exō "outside" (see exo-) + koitos "bed."

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propellant (n.)

"driving forward, propelling," the less-etymological, but more usual, modern spelling of propellent,1640s, from propel + -ent. As a noun from 1814, "that which propels or drives forward;" by 1881 as "a firearm explosive;" by 1919 as "fuel for a rocket engine."

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missile (n.)

"thing thrown or discharged as a weapon for the purpose of hitting something," 1650s, from missile (adj.), 1610s, "capable of being thrown," chiefly in phrase missile weapon, from French missile and directly from Latin missilis "that may be thrown or hurled" (also, in plural, as a noun, "weapons that can be thrown, darts, javelins"), from missus "a throwing, hurling," past participle of mittere "to release, let go; send, throw" (see mission). Sense of "self-propelled rocket or bomb" is first recorded 1738; in reference to modern rocket-propelled, remote-guidance projectiles by 1945.

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ballistic (adj.)

1775, "pertaining to construction and use of thrown objects," ultimately from Greek ballein "to throw" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach"). Of rockets or missiles (ones that are guided while under propulsion, but fall freely), from 1949. Ballistic missile is attested from 1954; they attain extreme heights, hence figurative expression go ballistic (1981) "become irrationally angry."

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skyrocket (n.)

1680s, type of firework that flies high, from sky (n.) + rocket (n.2). The verb, in the figurative sense of "to rise abruptly and rapidly" (often with suggestion of "and then explode and vanish") is attested from 1895. As rhyming slang for "pocket," by 1879.

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paddle-wheel (n.)

also paddlewheel, "wheel provided with boards or floats around its circumference, for use in moving water," 1680s, so called by its inventor, but the word was not in common use until 1805 and the rise of the steamboat with a side-mounted paddle-wheel turned by steam power for the propulsion of the vessel, from paddle (n.) + wheel (n.).

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Congreve 

in reference to solid-fuel rockets (1809) or matches (1839), a reference to English inventor Sir William Congreve (1772-1828), who learned the tactic of rocket warfare while serving in India. He was a descendant of the family of William Congreve the Restoration playwright (1670-1729), being probably his great-great-nephew.

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bazooka (n.)

"metal tube rocket launcher," 1942, transferred from the name of a junkyard musical instrument used (c. 1935) as a prop by U.S. comedian Bob Burns (1896-1956); the word is an extension of bazoo, a slang term for "mouth" or "boastful talk" (1877), which is probably from Dutch bazuin "trumpet."

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