Etymology
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obstinance (n.)

early 15c., obstinaunce, "non-compliance, self-willed persistence," from Medieval Latin obstinantia, from obstinatus "resolved, determined, resolute" (see obstinate). Earlier was obstinacioun "determination, resolution" (mid-14c.), from Old French.

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ping-pong (v.)

1901, "to play table tennis," from ping-pong (n.). In the figurative sense of "move or send back and forth without progress, resolution, or purpose" from 1952. Related: Ping-ponged; ping-ponging.

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determined (adj.)

late 14c., "bound, limited, restricted;" 1560s, "decided," past-participle adjective from determine. Meaning "characterized by resolution" is from c. 1600, of actions; 1772, of persons. The earlier adjective in this sense was determinate. To be determined "have come to a decision, be resolved" is from 1510s. Related: Determinedly.

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pecker (n.)

1690s, "one who or that which pecks," agent noun from peck (v.); slang sense of "penis" is from 1902, according to OED "chiefly U.S." OED adds that the British colloquial sense of "courage, resolution" (in keep your pecker up, 1853) is "commonly avoided by British travellers in the U.S."

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despond (v.)

"lose heart, resolution, or hope," 1650s, from Latin despondere "to give up, lose, lose heart, resign; to promise in marriage," etymologically "to promise to give something away," from de "away" (see de-) + spondere "to promise" (see sponsor (n.)). Related: Desponding; despondingly.

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expunge (v.)

"to mark or blot out as with a pen, erase (words), obliterate," c. 1600, from Latin expungere "prick out, blot out, mark (a name on a list) for deletion" by pricking dots above or below it, literally "prick out," from ex "out" (see ex-) + pungere "to prick, pierce" (from suffixed form of PIE root *peuk- "to prick").

According to OED, taken by early lexicographers in English to "denote actual obliteration by pricking;" it adds that the sense probably was influenced by sponge (v.). Related: Expunged; expunging; expungible. In U.S. history, the Expunging Resolution was adopted by the Senate in 1837 to expunge from its journal a resolution passed by it in 1834 censuring President Jackson.

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termination (n.)

late 14c., "authoritative resolution of a matter," from Old French terminacion (13c.) and directly from Latin terminationem (nominative terminatio) "a fixing of boundaries, a bounding, determining," noun of action from past-participle stem of terminare "to mark the end or boundary," from terminus "end, limit" (see terminus). Meaning "end of a person's employment" is recorded from 1961; meaning "artificial end of a pregnancy" is attested from 1969; sense of "assassination" is recorded from 1975.

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preamble (n.)

"prologue, preface, preliminary statement," late 14c., from Old French preambule (13c.) and directly from Medieval Latin preambulum, neuter adjective used as a noun, properly "preliminary," from Late Latin praeambulus "walking before," from Latin prae "before" (see pre-) + ambulare "to walk" (see amble (v.)). Especially the introductory paragraph of a statute or resolution, stating the reason for and intent of what follows. Related: Preambulary.

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dictum (n.)

"positive statement or assertion," often a mere saying but with implied authority, 1660s, from Latin dictum "thing said (a saying, bon-mot, prophecy, etc.), an order, a command," neuter of dictus, past participle of dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly"). In legal use, a judge's expression of opinion without argument, which is not the formal resolution of a case or determination of the court.

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decision (n.)

mid-15c., "act of deciding," from Old French décision (14c.), from Latin decisionem (nominative decisio) "a decision, settlement, agreement," noun of action from past-participle stem of decidere "to decide, determine," literally "to cut off," from de "off" (see de-) + caedere "to cut" (from PIE root *kae-id- "to strike").

Meaning "final judgment or opinion in a case" is from 1550s. Meaning "quality of being decided in character, ability to make prompt determinations" is from 1781; sense of "a resolution, a fixing of purpose" is by 1886.  Decision-making (adjective) is recorded by 1946.

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