Etymology
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sclerosis (n.)

"a hardening," especially "morbid hardening of the tissue," late 14c., from Medieval Latin sclerosis "a hardness, hard tumor," from Greek sklērosis "hardening," from sklēros "hard" (see sclero-). Figurative use, "excessive resistance to change," is by 1954.

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passive (adj.)

late 14c., passif, of matter, "capable of being acted upon;" of persons, "receptive;" also in the grammatical sense "expressive of being affected by some action" (opposed to active), from Old French passif "suffering, undergoing hardship" (14c.) and directly from Latin passivus "capable of feeling or suffering," from pass-, past-participle stem of pati "to suffer" (see passion).

The meaning "not active or acting" is recorded from late 15c.; the sense of "unresisting, not opposing, enduring suffering without resistance" is from 1620s. Related: Passively. As a noun, late 14c. as "a capacity in matter for being acted upon;" also in grammar, "a passive verb."

Passive resistance is attested in 1819 in Scott's "Ivanhoe" and was used throughout 19c.; it was re-coined by Gandhi c. 1906 in South Africa. Passive-aggressive with reference to behavior or personality characterized by indirect resistance but avoidance of direct confrontation is attested by 1971.

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short circuit (n.)
also short-circuit, 1854, in electricity, from short (adj.) + circuit (n.). As a verb, introduce a shunt of low resistance," from 1867; intransitive sense from 1902; in the figurative sense is recorded by 1899. Related: short-circuited; short-circuiting.
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ohm (n.)
unit of electrical resistance, 1867, in recognition of German physicist Georg S. Ohm (1789-1854), who determined the law of the flow of electricity. Originally proposed as ohma (1861) as a unit of voltage. Related: ohmage; ohmic; ohmeter.
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ampere (n.)
1881, "the current that one volt can send through a resistance of one ohm," from French ampère, named for French physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836). Adopted by the Electric Congress at Paris in 1881. Shortened form amp is attested from 1886.
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satyagraha (n.)

Indian form of passive resistance, 1920, in writings of Gandhi, from Sanskrit satyagraha "insistence on truth," from satya "truth, truthfulness" (from sat- "existing, true, virtuous," from PIE root *es- "to be") + agraha "pertinacity," from gṛbhṇāti, gṛhṇāti "he seizes" (from PIE root *ghrebh- (1) "to seize, reach;" see grab (v.)). Related: Satyagrahi.

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antithetical (adj.)
"of the nature of or containing a (rhetorical) antithesis," 1580s, from Greek antithetikos "setting in opposition," from antithetos "placed in opposition," from antithesis "opposition, resistance," literally "a placing against" (see antithesis) + -al (1). General sense of "characterized by direct opposition" is from 1848. Related: Antithetically.
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borg (n.)
fictional hostile alien hive-race in the "Star Trek" series, noted for "assimilating" defeated rivals, first introduced in "The Next Generation" TV series (debut fall 1987). Their catchphrase is "resistance is futile." According to the series creators, the name is derived from cyborg.
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contumacy (n.)

"willful and persistent resistance to legitimate authority," c. 1200, from Old French contumace and directly from Latin contumacia "perseverance in one's purpose or opinions," generally in a bad sense, "arrogance, inflexibility, haughtiness, insolence," also especially "obstinate disobedience to a judicial order," abstract noun from stem of contumax (see contumely).

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resistant (adj.)

early 15c., resistent, "making resistance or opposition," from present-participle stem of Latin resistere "make a stand against, oppose" (see resist). In later use from from French résistant, present participle of résister. In reference to the condition of not being overcome by diseases or drugs, from 1897.

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