Etymology
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self-denial (n.)

"act of denying one's own wishes; refusal to satisfy one's own desires," 1640s, from self- + denial.

Self-denial is to be presumed wise, necessary, or benevolent, unless indication is given to the contrary ; it may be the denial of selfishness; it may be not only the refusal to take what one might have, but the voluntary surrender of what one has ; it may be an act, a habit, or a principle. [Century Dictionary]

Related: Self-denier; self-denying (adj.) is by 1630s as "involving self-denial," also "characterized by or involving denial of one's self."

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recusal (n.)

"an objection to a judge as prejudiced" (usually reflective), 1911; from recuse + -al (2). Earlier were recusancy "obstinate refusal or opposition" (1560s), recusance (1590s); recusation (c. 1400), as a legal term for an interposition of an objection or challenge for cause to a judge, arbitration, etc.

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nay 

word of negation or refusal, "no" as a reply to a question, late 12c., from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse nei, compound of ne "not" (from PIE root *ne- "not") + ei "ever," from Proto-Germanic *aiwi-, extended form of PIE root *aiw- "vital force, life; long life, eternity."

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Mennonite (n.)

member of a German Anabaptist sect, 1560s, from name of Menno Simons (1492-1559), founder of the sect in Friesland and chief exponent of its doctrines (adult baptism, refusal of oaths, civic offices, and support of the state in war), + -ite (1). As an adjective by 1727. Alternative form Mennonist (n.) is attested from 1640s.

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dissent (v.)

mid-15c., dissenten, "express a different or contrary opinion or feeling, withhold approval or consent," from Old French dissentir (15c.) and directly from Latin dissentire "differ in sentiments, disagree, be at odds, contradict, quarrel," from dis- "differently" (see dis-) + sentire "to feel, think" (see sense (n.)). Ecclesiastical sense of "refuse to be bound by the doctrines or rules of an established church" is from 1550s. Related: Dissented; dissenting.

The noun is 1580s, "difference of opinion with regard to religious doctrine or worship," from the verb. From 1650s as "the act of dissenting, refusal to be bound by what is contrary to one's own judgment" (the opposite of consent). From 1660s as "a declaration of disagreement." By 1772 in the specific sense of "refusal to conform to an established church." 

Has there ever been a society which has died of dissent? Several have died of conformity in our lifetime. [Jacob Bronowski "Science and Human Values," 1956]
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disagreement (n.)

late 15c., "refusal to agree or assent," from disagree + -ment. From 1570s as "difference in form or essence," also "difference of opinion or sentiments," perhaps a separate formation from dis- + agreement. From 1580s as "a falling out, contention." As "unsuitableness, unfitness," by 1702.

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abnegation (n.)
Origin and meaning of abnegation

late 14c., "a negative assertion," c. 1500 as "self-denial, renunciation," from Latin abnegationem (nominative abnegatio) "refusal, denial," noun of action from past-participle stem of abnegare "to refuse, deny," from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + negare "to deny," from PIE root *ne- "not."

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repudiation (n.)

1540s, "divorce" (of a woman by a man), from Latin repudiationem (nominative repudiatio) "a rejection, refusal," noun of action from past-participle stem of repudiare (see repudiate). Meaning "action of disowning" is by 1850; specifically as "disavowal of an obligation, as of a debt lawfully contracted," by 1843, often originally of U.S. states during the financial crisis of 1837-43.

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reject (n.)

mid-15c., "refusal, denial;" 1550s, "a castaway" (both now obsolete), from reject (v.) or obsolete reject (adj.). The sense of "thing cast aside as unsatisfactory" (1893) probably is a fresh extension. Hence "person considered low-quality and worthless" (1925, from use in the militaries in reference to men unsuitable for service).

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repulse (n.)

late 15c., "defeat," in part from the English verb, in part from Old French repulse, variant of repousse, and in part directly from Latin repulsa "refusal, denial" (as in repulsa petitio "a repulse in soliciting for an office"), noun use of fem. of repulsus, past participle of repellere "to drive back" (see repel).

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