Etymology
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melodeon (n.)

1847, originally of a type of reed organ, variant of melodion, from German Melopdoin, from Melodie, from Old French melodie (see melody). As "a music hall" by 1840.

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cattail (n.)

also cat-tail, cat's tail, type of tall, reed-like aquatic plant, mid-15c., from cat (n.) + tail (n.). So called for its long, cylindrical, furry spikes.

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flag (n.3)
plant growing in moist places, late 14c., "reed, rush," perhaps from Scandinavian (compare Danish flæg "yellow iris") or from Dutch flag; perhaps ultimately connected to flag (v.1) on notion of "fluttering in the breeze."
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calamari (n.)
"squid, type of cuttlefish," 1560s, from Italian calamari, from Latin calamarius, literally "pertaining to a pen," from calamus "a writing pen," literally "reed" (see shawm). So called from the cuttlefish's pen-shaped internal shell and perhaps also from its being full of ink.
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calamine (n.)
"zinc carbonate," also, confusedly, "zinc silicate," 1590s, from French calamine, from Old French calemine, chalemine (13c.), from Medieval Latin calamina, corrupted by alchemists from Latin cadmia "zinc ore," from Greek kadmeia (see cadmium). Or possibly the Medieval Latin word is from Latin calamus "reed," in reference to the mineral's stalactite form in furnace chimneys.
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harmonium (n.)
keyboard instrument, a kind of reed-organ popular late 19c. in homes and smaller churches, 1847, from French harmonium, from Greek harmonia (see harmony). Harmonium-like instruments predate the improved version patented 1840 in France by Alexandre Debain, who gave it the name.
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junk (n.1)

mid-14c., junke "old cable or rope," cut in bits and used for caulking, etc., a nautical word of uncertain origin, perhaps from Old French junc "rush, reed," also used figuratively as a type of something of little value, from Latin iuncus "rush, reed" (but OED finds "no evidence of connexion").

It was extended to "old refuse from boats and ships" (1660s), then to "old or discarded articles of any kind" (1884), usually with a suggestion of reusability. Meaning "salt meat used on long voyages" is from 1762. Meaning "narcotic drug" is from 1925. Junk food is from 1971; junk art is from 1961; junk mail first attested 1954; junk bond from 1979.

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ferule (n.)
"rod or flat piece of wood for punishing children," 1590s, earlier "giant fennel" (early 15c.), from Middle English ferula "fennel plant" (late 14c.), from Latin ferula "reed, whip, rod, staff; fennel plant or stalk" (fennel stalks were used for administering flogging punishment in ancient Roman times) probably related to festuca "stalk, straw, rod."
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can (n.)
generally, "a small cylindrical sheet-metal vessel used to contain liquids, preserves, etc.," Old English canne "a cup, container," from Proto-Germanic *kanna (source also of Old Saxon, Old Norse, Swedish kanna "a can, tankard, mug," also a unit of measure, Middle Dutch kanne, Dutch kan, Old High German channa, German Kanne). Probably an early borrowing from Late Latin canna "container, vessel," from Latin canna "reed," also "reed pipe, small boat;" but the sense evolution is difficult.

Modern sense of "air-tight vessel of tinned iron" is from 1867. Slang meaning "toilet" is c. 1900, said to be a shortening of piss-can; meaning "buttocks" is from c. 1910, perhaps extended from this.
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cannon (n.)

c. 1400, "artillery piece, mounted gun for throwing projectiles by force of gunpowder," from Anglo-French canon (mid-14c.), Old French canon (14c.), from Italian cannone "large tube, barrel," augmentative of Latin canna "reed, tube" (see cane (n.)). The double -n- spelling to differentiate it from canon is from c. 1800. Cannon fodder (1847) translates German kanonenfutter (compare Shakespeare's food for powder in "I Hen. IV").

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