Etymology
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cyan- 

word-forming element used in science for the carbon-nitrogen compound radical, from a Latinized form of Greek kyanos "dark blue" (see cyan).

The immediate source of its use in science is French cyanogène, the name given to the compound radical by Gay-Lussac. He called it that because it first had been obtained by heating the dye pigment powder known as Prussian blue (see Prussian).

The cyanogen radical was one of the first examples of a 'compound radical' and was of importance in the development of structural chemistry during the next forty years. [Flood, "Origins of Chemical Names"]  
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cetyl (n.)
univalent alcohol radical found in spermaceti, beeswax, etc., 1842, from Latin cetus "whale" (see Cetacea) + -yl.
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halide (n.)
a compound of a halogen and a metal radical, 1844, from Swedish (Berzelius, 1825), from halo- + chemical suffix -ide.
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amine (n.)
"compound in which one of the hydrogen atoms of ammonia is replaced by a hydrocarbon radical," 1863, from ammonia + chemical suffix -ine (2).
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butyl (n.)
hydrocarbon radical, 1855, from butyric acid, a product of fermentation found in rancid butter, from Latin butyrum "butter" (see butter (n.)).
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diazepam (n.)

"Valium," 1961, from (benzo)diazep(ine) + -am, apparently an arbitrary suffix. The element diazo- denotes two nitrogen atoms combined with one hydrocarbon radical.

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maximalist (n.)

"extreme radical in the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party" (one who insists on all his demands ), by 1907, from maximal + -ist, based on Russian maksimalist. Related: Maximalism.

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methyl (n.)

univalent hydrocarbon radical, 1840, from German methyl (1840) or directly from French méthyle, back-formation from French méthylène (see methylene). Ultimately from Greek methy "wine" + hylē "wood." 

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radicand (n.)

in mathematics, the number under a radical sign, by 1843, from German, from Modern Latin radicandus, gerundive of radicare "to take root," from radix "root" (from PIE root *wrād- "branch, root").

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polyvinyl (n.)

"polymeric substance derived from vinyl compounds," 1930, polymer of vinyl chloride. In chemistry, vinyl was used from 1863 as the name of a univalent radical derived from ethylene, from Latin vinum "wine" (see wine (n.)), because ethyl alcohol is the ordinary alcohol present in wine.

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