c. 1400, "actually, in fact, in a real manner," originally in reference to the presence of Christ in the Eucharist, "substantially," from real (adj.) + -ly (2). The general sense is from early 15c. Purely emphatic use dates from c. 1600, "indeed," sometimes as a corroboration, sometimes as an expression of surprise or a term of protest; interrogative use (as in oh, really?) is recorded from 1815.
c. 1200, "to rebuke," from Old French chalongier "complain, protest; haggle, quibble," from Vulgar Latin *calumniare "to accuse falsely," from Latin calumniari "to accuse falsely, misrepresent, slander," from calumnia "trickery" (see calumny).
From late 13c. as "to object to, take exception to;" c. 1300 as "to accuse," especially "to accuse falsely," also "to call to account;" late 14c. as "to call to fight." Also used in Middle English with sense "claim, take to oneself." Related: Challenged; challenging.
late 15c., reclamacion, "a revoking" (of a grant, etc.), from Old French réclamacion and directly from Latin reclamationem (nominative reclamatio) "a cry of 'no,' a shout of disapproval," noun of action from past participle stem of reclamare "cry out against, protest" (see reclaim). From 1630s as "action of calling (someone) back" (from iniquity, etc.); meaning "action of claiming as a possession something taken away" is from 1787. Of waste land from 1848; the notion is "action of subduing to fitness or use;" of used or waste material or objects, by 1937.
"telegraphic dispatch," according to Bartlett's 1859 edition a coinage of E. Peshine Smith of Rochester, N.Y., from tele-, as in telegraph + -gram, and introduced in the Albany "Evening Journal" of April 6, 1852. Damned in the cradle by purists who pointed out that the correct formation would be telegrapheme (which is close to the Modern Greek word).
May I suggest to such as are not contented with 'Telegraphic Dispatch' the rightly constructed word 'telegrapheme'? I do not want it, but ... I protest against such a barbarism as 'telegram.' [Richard Shilleto, Cambridge Greek scholar, in the London Times, Oct. 15, 1857]
"unsubstantiated report, gossip, hearsay;" also "tidings, news, a current report with or without foundation," late 14c., from Old French rumor "commotion, widespread noise or report" (Modern French rumeur), from Latin rumorem (nominative rumor) "noise, clamor; common talk, hearsay, popular opinion," which is related to ravus "hoarse" (from PIE *reu- "to bellow").
Dutch rumoer, German Rumor are from French. The sense of "loud protest, clamor, outcry" also was borrowed in Middle English but is now archaic or poetic. Also compare rumorous "making a loud, confused sound" (1540s). Rumor-monger is by 1884 (earlier in that sense was rumorer, c. 1600). The figurative rumor mill is by 1887.
late 14c., excepcioun, "act or fact of leaving out or the excluding of" from the scope of some rule or condition, from Anglo-French excepcioun (late 13c. in a legal sense, "formal objection or protest entered by a defendant"), Old French excepcion, from Latin exceptionem (nominative exceptio) "an exception, restriction, limitation; an objection," noun of action from past-participle stem of excipere "to take out" (see except).
From c. 1400 as "a reservation or exemption;" from late 15c. as "something that is excepted." The exception that proves the rule is from law: exceptio probat regulam in casibus non exceptis, "the exception proves the rule in cases not excepted;" exception here being "action of excepting" someone or something from the rule in question, not the person or thing that is excepted. The figure of speech in to take exception "find fault with, disapprove" is from excipere being used in Roman law as a modern attorney would say objection.