Etymology
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monotonous (adj.)

1750, of sound, "unvaried in tone, characterized by monotony, unvaried in tone," from Greek monotonos "of one tone" (see monotony). Transferred and figurative use, "lacking in variety, uninteresting, tiresomely uniform," is from 1783. Related: Monotonously; monotonousness.

The secondary sense of monotonous (same or tedious) has so nearly swallowed up its primary (of one pitch or tone) that it is well worth while to remember the existence of monotonic, which has the primary sense only. [Fowler]
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originality (n.)

1742, "quality or state of being primary or first-hand," from original (adj.) + -ity. Probably after French originalité (1690s). Meaning "quality of being novel, freshness of style or character" is from 1787.

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penology (n.)

"study of punishment for crime and crime prevention," 1838, coined apparently by Francis Lieber, corresponding member of the Philadephia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, from pen- as in penitentiary (ultimately from Latin poena "penalty, punishment;" see penal) + -ology "study of." Related: Penologist; penological.

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hadron (n.)
1962, from Greek hadros "thick, bulky" (the primary sense), also "strong, great; large, well-grown, ripe," from PIE root *sa- "to satisfy." With elementary particle suffix -on. Coined in Russian as adron.
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idiopathy (n.)
"primary disease," 1690s, Modern Latin, from medical Greek idiopatheia, from idios "one's own" (see idiom) + -patheia, abstract noun formation from pathos "suffering, disease, feeling" (from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer"). Related: idiopathic.
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secondary (adj.)

late 14c., secondarie, "belonging to the second class; not chief or principal; second in importance or authority; of a lesser quality or worth; subordinate to something else, depending upon the action of primary qualities," from Old French secondaire and directly from Latin secundarius "pertaining to the second class, inferior," from secundus (see second (adj.)).

Opposed to primary (adj.) or principal (adj.). Of colors, under the old theory, from 1831; in reference to schools or education, from 1809. Of characteristics peculiar to one sex but not necessary for reproduction, from 1780. Related: Secondarily; secondariness.

As a noun from mid-15c. as "thing or place of secondary importance or which is dependent on a primary;" 1590s as "a delegate or deputy." The U.S. football sense of "defensive backfield" is by 1955.

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anesthesia (n.)

1721, "loss of feeling," medical Latin, from Greek anaisthēsia "want of feeling or perception, lack of sensation (to pleasure or pain)," abstract noun from an- "without" (see an- (1)) + aisthēsis "feeling," from PIE root *au- "to perceive." For the abstract noun ending, see -ia. As "a procedure for the prevention of pain in surgical operations," from 1846. Aesthesia "capacity for feeling" is attested in English from 1853, perhaps a back-formation.

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radicle (n.)

1670s, in botany, "rootlet, part of the embryo of a plant which develops into the primary root," from Latin radicula, diminutive of radix "root" (from PIE root *wrād- "branch, root"). Anatomical sense of "branch of a nerve, vein, etc. resembling a root" is by 1830.

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teller (n.)
"bank clerk who pays or receives money," late 15c., "person who keeps accounts," agent noun from tell (v.) in its secondary sense of "count, enumerate," which is the primary sense of cognate words in many Germanic languages. Earlier "person who announces or narrates" (c. 1300).
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fright (v.)

"to frighten," Middle English, from Old English fyrhtan "to terrify, fill with fear," from the source of fright (n.). Old English had also forhtian "be afraid, become full of fear, tremble," but the primary sense of the verb in Middle English was "to make afraid."

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