Etymology
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fromward (adv.)
(obsolete), late Old English framweardes, from framweard (adj.) "about to depart; doomed to die; with back turned;" opposed to toweard (see toward)); from from + -ward, and compare froward. As a preposition from c. 1200.
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barring (n.)
late 14c., "act of fastening with a bar," verbal noun from bar (v.). Meaning "exclusion" is from 1630s. As a preposition, "excepting, excluding," it is from late 15c. Schoolhouse prank of barring out the teacher was in use by 1728.
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part of speech (n.)

"a word viewed as a constituent member of a sentence," c. 1500, translating Latin pars orationis (see parse). The parts of speech are: Noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. Sometimes article and participle are counted among them.

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praeter- 

from Latin adverb and preposition praeter "beyond, past, besides, except" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "in front of, before"). See preter-, which now is the usual form of it in English; also see æ (1).

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preter- 

also praeter-, word-forming element meaning "beyond; over, more than in quantity or degree," from Latin praeter (adverb and preposition) "beyond, before, above, more than," properly comparative of prae "before," from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "in front of, before."

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counter (adv.)

"contrary, in opposition, in an opposite direction," mid-15c., from counter- or from Anglo-French and Old French contre "against," both ultimately from Latin contra (see contra (prep., adv.)). As a preposition, "contrary to, opposite, against," mid-15c.

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except (v.)

late 14c., excepten, "to receive," from Old French excepter (12c.), from Latin exceptus, past participle of excipere "to take out, withdraw; make an exception, reserve," from ex "out" (see ex-) + capere "to take," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp." Meaning "to leave out" is from 1510s. Related: Excepted; excepting. Adjectival function led to use as a preposition, conjunction (late 14c.).

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nearby (adv.)

also near-by, "close at hand, not far off," late 14c., from near (adv.) + by (adv.). As a preposition from mid-15c.; as an adjective by 1858. Middle English also had ner-honde "near-hand; near in space or time" (c. 1300).

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downward (adv.)

"from a higher to a lower place, state, or condition," late 12c., from down (adv.) + -ward. As a preposition, "down," by late 14c. As an adjective, "moving or tending from a higher to a lwer place, state, or condition," from 1550s. As an adverb Old English had aduneweard. Downwards (c. 1200), with adverbial genitive, had a parallel in Old English ofduneweardes.

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beside (prep., adv.)
c. 1200, from Old English be sidan "by the side of" (only as two words), from be- + sidan dative of side (n.). By 1200 as one word and used as both adverb and preposition. The alternative Middle English meaning "outside" is preserved in beside oneself "out of one's wits" (late 15c.).
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