"to people, inhabit; form or furnish the population of a country, etc.," 1610s, from Medieval Latin populatus, past participle of populare "inhabit, to people," from Latin populus "inhabitants, people, nation" (see people (n.)). Earlier in English it was an adjective, "peopled, populated" (1570s). Related: Populated; populating.
We teach the population at the cheapest possible rate; and the aim all the democratization (if we may use the word) of literature proposes to itself in this country, is to store the minds of the many, of the anonymous multitude, with a large portion of valuable, because practically useful, facts. [Meliora, vol. ii, no. 6, 1860]
1808, "village, town, or inhabited place in Spanish America," from Spanish pueblo "village, small town; people, population," from Latin populum, accusative of populus "people" (see people (n.)). Especially as a name for more or less self-governing native peoples of Arizona and New Mexico living in communal villages, by 1834.
"district and population under the pastoral care of a bishop," mid-14c., from Old French diocese (13c., Modern French diocèse), from Late Latin diocesis, in the Roman Empire "a governor's jurisdiction, a subdivision of a prefecture containing a number of provinces," later, in Church Latin, "a bishop's jurisdiction," from Greek dioikesis "government, administration; province," originally "economy, housekeeping," from dioikein "control, govern, administer, manage a house," from dia "thoroughly" (see dia-) + oikos "house" (from PIE root *weik- (1) "clan").