1874 in philosophy, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + determinism.
1865, "officiousness," from pragmatic + -ism. From 1905 as a term in philosophy by American philosopher C.S. Peirce (1839-1914) in reference to the doctrine that abstract concepts must be understood in terms of their practical implications; coined to distinguish his philosophy from pragmatism.
in Chinese philosophy, "physical life force," 1850, said to be from Chinese qi "air, breath."
also Kantean, 1796, of or pertaining to German thinker Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) or his philosophy.
undergraduate honorary society, 1776, from initials of Greek philosophia biou kybernētēs "philosophy, guide of life."
1847, the philosophy, based on actual or absolute knowledge, of Auguste Comte (1798-1857), who published "Philosophie positive" in 1830; see positive (adj.) in the "just the facts" sense + -ism. A philosophy based on positive facts and observable phenomena and abandoning inquiry into causes or ultimate origins. Related: Positivist; Positivistic.
"the philosophy that the morality of an action is to be judged solely by its consequences," 1951, from consequential + -ism. Related: Consequentialist.