1904, in reference to the ideas or followers of German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). The surname is probably a diminutive of Nikolaus.
"a word regarded as a grammatical unit in a language," 1906, coined by U.S. philosopher Charles S. Pierce (1839-1914), from Greek phēmē "speech, voice, utterance, a speaking" (from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say").
"wise man, man of profound wisdom, venerable man known as a grave philosopher," mid-14c., from sage (adj.). Originally applied to the Seven Sages — Thales, Solon, Periander, Cleobulus, Chilon, Bias, and Pittacus — men of ancient Greece renowned for practical wisdom.