Etymology
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collegial (adj.)

mid-14c., "pertaining to a college," from Latin collegialis, from collegium "community, society, guild," literally "association of collegae," plural of collega "partner in office," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see com-) + leg-, stem of legare "to choose," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather." Related: Collegially; collegiality.

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pal (n.)

"partner, mate, chum," slang, 1680s, said to be from Romany (English Gypsy) pal "brother, comrade," a variant of continental Romany pral, plal, phral, which are probably from Sanskrit bhrata "brother" (from PIE root *bhrater- "brother"). Colloquial extended form palsy-walsy is attested from 1930. Pally (adj.) is attested by 1895.

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croupier (n.)

"one who clears the winnings from the table in gambling," 1731, from French croupier "partner or assistant at the gaming table" (17c.), originally one who rides behind another, on the croup or "rump" of a horse (a word of Germanic origin); hence extended to any one who backs up another; a "second."

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wallflower (n.)
1570s, type of flowering plant cultivated in gardens, native to southern Europe, where it grows on old walls and in rocky places, from wall (n.) + flower (n.). Colloquial sense of "woman who sits by the wall at parties, often for want of a partner" is first recorded 1820.
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colleague (n.)

"an associate in office, employment, or labor," 1530s, from French collègue (16c.), from Latin collega "partner in office," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see com-) + leg-, stem of legare "send as a deputy, send with a commission," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather." So, "one sent or chosen to work with another," or "one chosen at the same time as another."

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complicity (n.)

"the state of being an accomplice, partnership in wrongdoing or an objectionable act," 1650s, from French complicité, from Old French complice "accomplice, comrade, companion" (14c.), from Late Latin complicem, accusative of complex "partner, confederate," from Latin complicare "to fold together," from com "with, together" (see com-) + plicare "to fold, weave" (from PIE root *plek- "to plait"). Compare accomplice.

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fellatio (n.)
1894 (Havelock Ellis), from Latin fellatio, noun of action from fellatus, past participle of fellare "to suck," from suffixed form of PIE root *dhe(i)- "to suck." The sexual partner performing fellatio is a fellator; if female, a fellatrice or fellatrix. L.C. Smithers' 1884 translation from German of Forberg's "Manual of Classical Erotology" has fellator, fellatrix, and fellation, but not fellatio.
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comrade (n.)

1590s, "one who shares the same room," hence "a close companion," from French camarade (16c.), from Spanish camarada "chamber mate," or Italian camerata "a partner," from Latin camera "vaulted room, chamber" (see camera). In Spanish, a collective noun referring to one's company. In 17c., sometimes in jocular use misspelled comrogue. Used from 1884 by socialists and communists as a prefix to a surname to avoid "Mister" and other such titles. Related: Comradely; comradeship.

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symbiosis (n.)
1876, as a biological term, "union for life of two different organisms based on mutually benefit," from Greek symbiosis "a living together," from symbioun "live together," from symbios "(one) living together (with another), partner, companion, husband or wife," from assimilated form of syn- "together" (see syn-) + bios "life" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live"). Given a wider (non-biological) sense by 1921. An earlier sense of "communal or social life" is found in 1620s. A back-formed verb symbiose is recorded from 1960.
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spouse (n.)

c. 1200, "a married person, either one of a married pair, but especially a married woman in relation to her husband," also "Christ or God as the spiritual husband of the soul, the church, etc.," also "marriage, the wedded state," from Old French spous (fem. spouse) "marriage partner," variant of espous/espouse (Modern French épous/épouse), from Latin sponsus "bridegroom" (fem. sponsa "bride"), literally "betrothed," from masc. and fem. past participle of spondere "to bind oneself, promise solemnly," from PIE *spend- "to make an offering, perform a rite" (see sponsor (n.)). Spouse-breach (early 13c.) was an old name for "adultery."

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