"fortress commanding a city," 1580s, from French citadelle (15c.), from Italian cittadella, diminutive of Old Italian cittade "city" (Modern Italian citta), from Latin civitatem (nominative civitas; also source of Portuguese citadella, Spanish ciuadela; see city).
Russian, "city," from Old Church Slavonic gradŭ "town, city, citadel," from PIE *ghor-dho-, from root *gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose," with derivatives referring to enclosure.
early 15c., "belonging to an (ecclesiastical) metropolis," from Late Latin metropolitanus, from Greek metropolites "resident of a city," from metropolis (see metropolitan (n.)). Meaning "residing in or connected with a chief or capital city" is from 1550s. In reference to underground city railways, it is attested from 1867.
the old city or citadel of a North African city, 1738, from French casbah, from North African Arabic dialect kasba "fortress."
city in Sicily, founded as a Corinthian colony, and with a name traceable to 8c. B.C.E., from a pre-Hellenic word, perhaps Phoenician serah "to feel ill," in reference to its location near a swamp. The city in New York, U.S., was named 1825 for the classical city.
"New York City," 1909 (but popularized by 1970s tourism promotion campaign), apparently from jazz musicians' use of apple for any city, especially a Northern one.
"characteristic of city life, pertaining to cities or towns," 1610s (but rare before 1830s), from Latin urbanus "of or pertaining to a city or city life; in Rome," also "in city fashion, polished, refined, cultivated, courteous," but also sometimes "witty, facetious, bold, impudent;" as a noun, "city dweller," from urbs (genitive urbis) "city, walled town," a word of unknown origin.
The word gradually emerged in this sense as urbane became restricted to manners and styles of expression. In late 20c. American English gradually acquiring a suggestion of "African-American." Urban renewal, euphemistic for "slum clearance," is attested from 1955, American English. Urban sprawl recorded by 1958. Urban legend attested by 1980.
kind of jam-filled tart, 1906, from German Linzertorte, from Linzer (adj.) "of Linz," the city in Austria, + torte "tart" (see torte). The city name probably is ultimately from the Germanic root for "lime tree."