Etymology
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paddock (n.1)

"a toad, a frog," late 14c., paddok (late 12c. as a surname), probably a diminutive of pad "toad," from Old Norse padda; from Proto-Germanic *pado- "toad" (source also of Swedish padda, Danish padde, Old Frisian and Middle Dutch padde "frog, toad," also Dutch schildpad "tortoise"), of unknown origin and with no certain cognates outside Germanic. Paddock-stool was an old name for a toadstool (mid-15c.). Pad in the straw was a 16c.-17c. expression meaning "something wrong, hidden danger."

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padlock (n.)

"removable lock with a pivoted bow or hasp," late 15c., pad-lok, from lock (n.1), but the first element is of obscure origin; perhaps originally, as some sources suggest, "a lock for a pannier."

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wad (v.)
1570s, "put a wad into," from wad (n.). From 1670s as "form into a wad;" 1759 as "pad or stuff with wadding." Related: Wadded; wadding.
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babouche (n.)
also baboosh, 1690s, from French babouche, from Arabic babush, from Persian paposh "a slipper," from pa "foot" (related to Avestan pad-, from PIE root *ped- "foot") + posh "covering." Arabic, lacking a -p-, regularly converts -p- in foreign words to -b-.
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launch (n.1)
"a leap or a bound," mid-15c., from launch (v.). Meaning "place where a boat is launched" is from 1711. Meaning "the liftoff of a missile, spacecraft, etc." is from 1935. Launch pad attested from 1960.
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bezoar (n.)
1540s, "stone used as an antidote against poison," via Medieval Latin, from Arabic bazahr, from Persian pad-zahr "counter-poison," from pad "protecting, guardian, master" (from Iranian *patar-, source also of Avestan patar-, from PIE *pa-tor-, from root *pa- "to feed, protect") + zahr "poison" (from Old Iranian *jathra, from PIE *gwhn-tro-, from root *gwhen- "to strike, kill;" see bane). Later in reference to a concoction from solid matter found in the stomachs and intestines of ruminants, which was held to have antidotal qualities (1570s). Related: Bezoardic.
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bustle (n.2)

"padding in the upper back part of a skirt," 1788, of uncertain origin, perhaps from German Buschel "bunch, pad," or it might be a special use of bustle (n.1) with reference to "rustling motion."

BUSTLE. A pad stuffed with cotton, feathers, bran, &c., worn by ladies for the double purpose of giving a greater rotundity or prominence to the hips, and setting off the smallness of the waist. [Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 1848]

Century Dictionary (1895) notes that, in addition to "improving the figure" it causes the folds of the skirt to hang gracefully and prevents the skirt from interfering with the feet in walking.

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pillion (n.)

kind of light, simple saddle, especially for women, c. 1500, of Celtic origin (compare Irish pillin, Gaelic pillin), ultimately from Latin pellis "skin, pelt" (from PIE root *pel- (3) "skin, hide"). Later also "adjustable pad or cushion behind a saddle as a seat for a second person, usually a woman."

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Band-Aid (n.)
trademark name (Johnson & Johnson) for a stick-on gauze pad or strip, by 1922. See band (n.1) + aid (n.). The British equivalent was Elastoplast. Figurative sense of "temporary or makeshift solution to a problem, pallative" (often lower case, sometimes bandaid) is attested by 1968; as an adjective in this sense, by 1970.
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cue (n.2)

 "tail, something hanging down," variant of queue (n.), ultimately from Latin cauda "tail." Meaning "long roll or plait of a wig or hair worn hanging down, a pigtail," is from 1731. Meaning "straight, tapering rod with a small soft pad, used in billiards," is by 1749. Hence cue-ball, the ball struck by the cue, recorded by 1881.

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