c. 1300, "a retreat, a drawing back" (a sense now obsolete), from Old French recul "recoil, backward movement, retreat," from reculer (see recoil (v.)). Meaning "back-kick of a firearm or piece of ordnance when discharged" is from 1570s.
"one who answers" in a lawsuit, disputation, survey, etc., 1520s, from Latin respondentem (nominative respondens), present participle of respondere "respond, answer to, promise in return," from re- "back" (see re-) + spondere "to pledge" (see sponsor (n.)). Related: Respondence "correspondence, act of responding."
"preliminary examination or survey," specifically "an examination of a territory or enemy position with a view to directing military operations," 1810, a word from the Napoleonic Wars, from French reconnaissance "act of surveying," literally "recognition," from Old French reconoissance "recognition, acknowledgement" (see recognizance).
1836, "a comprehensive survey," from Latin conspectus "a looking at, sight, view; range or power of vision," noun use of past participle of conspicere "to look at" (see conspicuous). Meaning "a grouping together so as to be readily seen at one time" is from 1838.
1872, "a show presenting a review of current events," from French revue, literally "survey," noun use of fem. past participle of revoir "to see again" (see review (n.)). By 1890s it was extended to any elaborate musical show consisting of a series of unrelated scenes.
mid-15c., review, revewe, reveue, "a formal inspection of military forces" by a higher official or superior in rank, to judge the effectiveness of their training, from Old French reveue "a reviewing, review" (Modern French revue), noun use of fem. past participle of reveeir "to see again, go to see again," from Latin revidere, from re- "again" (see re-) + videre "to see" (from PIE root *weid- "to see").
The sense of "act or process of going over again," especially with a view to correction, is from 1560s. The meaning "general survey of a subject" is from c. 1600; that of "a view of the past, a retrospective survey" is from 1670s. The meaning "general examination or criticism of a recent literary, dramatic, or artistic work" is attested from 1640s. Hence review used as a name for a periodical which publishes mainly articles on current affairs or critical examinations of literary works (1705).
"pertaining to the valuation of landed property as a basis for taxation," 1850, from French cadastral, from cadastre "register of the survey of lands" (16c.), from Old Italian catastico, from Late Greek katastikhos "register," literally "by the line" (see cata-, stair). Gamillscheg dismisses derivation from Late Latin capitastrum "register of the poll tax."
"short cannon, ordnance piece short in proportion to the size of its bore," fired at a high angle and meant to secure a vertical fall of the projectile, 1620s, originally mortar-piece (1550s), from French mortier "short cannon," in Old French, "bowl for mixing or pounding" (see mortar (n.2)). So called for its shape.