Etymology
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Spartacist (n.)
German Bolshevik of November 1918 uprising, 1919, from German Spartakist, from Spartacus (d.71 B.C.E.), Thracian leader of Roman Servile War (73-71 B.C.E.), ultimately from Sparta; the name was adopted 1916 as a pseudonym by Karl Liebknecht in his political tracts; thence Spartacist for the socialist revolutionary group he founded with Rosa Luxemburg and Franz Mehring.
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condom (n.)

"contraceptive sheath," 1706, traditionally named for a British physician during reign of Charles II (a story traceable to 1709), but there is no evidence for that. Also spelled condam, quondam, which suggests it may be from Italian guantone, from guanto "a glove." A word omitted in the original OED (c. 1890) and not used openly in the U.S. and not advertised in mass media until the November 1986 speech by Surgeon General C. Everett Koop on AIDS prevention. Compare prophylactic.

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werewolf (n.)
late Old English werewulf "person with the power to turn into a wolf," from wer "man, male person" (from PIE root *wi-ro- "man") + wulf (see wolf (n.); also see here for a short discussion of the mythology). Belief in them was widespread in the Middle Ages. Similar formation in Middle Dutch weerwolf, Old High German werwolf, Swedish varulf. In the ancient Persian calendar, the eighth month (October-November) was Varkazana-, literally "(Month of the) Wolf-Men."
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video (adj.)

1935, as visual equivalent of audio, from Latin video "I see," first person singular present indicative of videre "to see" (see vision). As a noun, "that which is displayed on a (television) screen," 1937.

Engineers, however, remember the sad fate of television's first debut and are not willing to allow "video transmission" (as television is now called by moderns) to leave the laboratory until they are sure it will be accepted. [The Michigan Technic, November 1937]

video game is from 1973.

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rangy (adj.)

"having a long, slender form, quick or easy in movement" (as an animal suited to ranging), 1845, from range (v.) + -y (2). Also "adapted for ranging" (1868). Of landscapes, "hilly," 1862, Australian English (probably from range (n.)). Of persons of a long, slender form by 1899. Related: Ranginess.

As a rule, we hold that the Jersey should be "growthy," deep-flanked, and loose-jointed, and should have, generally, the characteristics which farmers know as "rangy." [American Agriculturalist, November 1876]
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almighty (adj.)

Old English ælmihtig "all-powerful," also a by-name of God; compound of æl (see all) + mihtig (see mighty); common Germanic (cognates: Old Saxon alomahtig, Old High German alamahtic, German allmächtig, Old Norse almattigr), perhaps an early Germanic loan-translation of Latin omnipotens (see omnipotent). Originally only of deities; general use is by late 14c.

The almighty dollar, that great object of universal devotion throughout our land. [Washington Irving, "The Creole Village," in The Knickerbocker, or New-York Monthly Magazine, November 1836]

Related: Almightily; almightiness. A 15c. text translates omnipotencia with allmyghtyhede "almightihood."

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harvest (n.)

Old English hærfest "autumn," as one of the four seasons, "period between August and November," from Proto-Germanic *harbitas (source also of Old Saxon hervist, Old Frisian and Dutch herfst, German Herbst "autumn," Old Norse haust "harvest"), from PIE root *kerp- "to gather, pluck, harvest."

In Old English and Middle English it was primarily a season name, with only an implied reference to the gathering of crops. The meaning "the time of gathering crops" is attested by mid-13c., and the sense was extended to the action itself and the product of the action (after c. 1300). After c. 1500 these were the main senses and the borrowed autumn and repurposed fall (n.) supplied the season name.

The figurative uses begin by 1530s. As an adjective, from late 14c. Harvest home (1570s) was a festive celebration of the bringing home the last of the harvest; harvest moon (1704) is that which is full within a fortnight of the autumnal equinox.

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naturalist (n.)

"student of plants and animals," c. 1600, from French naturaliste, from natural (see natural (adj.)). Earlier "one who studies natural, rather than spiritual, things" (1580s). A Middle English word for "natural philosopher or scientist" was naturien (late 14c.).

[The naturalist on expedition, pursued by a Nile crocodile, has climbed a palm tree for safety.]

Suddenly he experienced a new shudder of terror, as he remembered an article which he had inserted in the Belfast Review, and in which he had himself declared that crocodiles climb trees like cats. He would gladly have thrown this article into the fire, but it was too late, all Belfast had read it, it had been translated into Arabic and no Oriental author had yet refuted it, not even at Crocodilopolis. [Graham's Magazine, November 1855]
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Jacobin (n.)
early 14c., "Dominican friar," from Old French Jacobin (13c.) "Dominican friar" (also, in the Middle East, "a Copt"); so called because the order built its first convent near the church of Saint-Jacques in Paris. The masc. proper name Jacques is from Late Latin Iacobus, for which see Jacob.

The Revolutionary extremists ("Society of the Friends of the Constitution") made their club headquarters there October 1789 and supported Robespierre during the Terror. They were suppressed along with him in November 1794 and many members executed. In English, the word quickly became a scare-word for the worst excesses of the French Revolution, and since 1793 it has been used generically and often inappropriately of allegedly radical politicians and reformers. Related: Jacobinism; Jacobinic; Jacobinical.
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vegan (n.)

1944, probably based on a modification of vegetarian; coined by English vegetarian Donald Watson (1910-2005) to distinguish those who abstain from all animal products (eggs, cheese, etc.) from those who merely refuse to eat the animals.

'Vegetarian' and 'Fruititarian' are already associated with societies that allow the 'fruits'(!) of cows and fowls, therefore it seems we must make a new and appropriate word. As this first issue of our periodical had to be named, I have used the title "The Vegan News". Should we adopt this, our diet will soon become known as a VEGAN diet, and we should aspire to the rank of VEGANS. [The Vegan News, No. 1, November 1944]
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