Etymology
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rhesus 

1827, "macaque, sacred monkey of India," from the Modern Latin genus name of a type of East Indian monkey (1799), given by French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Audebert (1759-1800) and said to be an arbitrary use of Latin Rhesus, the name of a legendary prince or king of Thrace, from Greek Rhēsos, which is also a river name.

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vervet (n.)

South African monkey, 1884, from French (Cuvier), of unknown origin, perhaps short for vert grivet, literally "a green grivet," indicating it was greener than the kind of monkey known as a grivet (itself a name of unknown origin). "Vervets are among the monkeys carried about by organ-grinders" [Century Dictionary].

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pug-nose (n.)

"a nose turned upwards at the tip," 1778, from pug (n.) based on fancied similarity to the nose of either the monkey or the dog. Related: Pug-nosed (1791). Pug-face is attested by 1768.

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pitheco- 

before vowels pithec-, word-forming element meaning "pertaining to an ape or monkey," from Greek pithēkos "ape," which Beekes calls "A loanword from an unknown language."

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marmot (n.)

c. 1600, of a type of large rodent found in the Alps and Pyrenees, from French marmotte, from Romansch (Swiss) murmont (assimilated to Old French marmote "monkey"), from Latin murem montis "mountain mouse." Applied 18c. to similar animals found in Asia and North America.

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coco (n.)

"palm tree," 1550s, from Spanish and Portuguese coco "grinning or grimacing face," on resemblance of the three depressions at the base of the shell to a monkey or human face. The earlier word for it was the Latinized form cocus, which sometimes was Englished as cocos.

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brass (adj.)

"made of brass," c. 1400, from brass (n.). Compare brazen (adj.). Slang brass balls "toughness, courage" (emphatically combining two words that serve as metaphors for the same thing) is attested by 1960s. Brass-band is from 1827.

The figurative brass tacks "essentials of a matter" that you get down to (1897, popular from c. 1910) perhaps are the ones said to have been nailed to the counters of a dry goods stores and used to measure cloth, suggesting precision, but the metaphor was unclear from the start, and brass tacks or nails in late 19c. were commonly noted as being used in upholstering. A 1911 advertisement begins " 'Getting down to brass tacks' is a characteristic American slang phrase, full of suggestion but of obscure origin."

The figurative brass monkey that suffers anatomical loss in freezing weather is attested by 1843:

Old Knites was as cool as a cucumber, and would have been so, independent of the weather, which, as he expressed it, was cold enough to freeze the nose off a brass monkey. ["An Incident of the Canadian Rebellion," in The Worcester Magazine, June, 1843]

Melville  ("Omoo," 1847) has a twist on the image in "hot enough to melt the nose h'off a brass monkey."

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grease (n.)

"oily fat of land animals," c. 1300, from Anglo-French grece, Old French gresse, craisse "grease, fat" (Modern French graisse), from Vulgar Latin *crassia "(melted) animal fat, grease," from Latin crassus "thick, solid, fat" (source also of Spanish grasa, Italian grassa), which is of unknown origin. Grease paint, used by actors, attested from 1880. Grease monkey "mechanic" is from 1918.

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Savoy 

region and former duchy south of Lake Geneva (now France, before 1860 part of the Kingdom of Sardinia), French Savoie, from Roman Sapaudia, which is of unknown origin. Related: Savoyard "native or inhabitant of Savoy," with French -ard (see -ard). By mid-18c. they were "well known in other countries as musicians itinerating with hurdy-gurdy and monkey" [OED].

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Capuchin (n.)

"Friar of the Order of St. Francis, under the rule of 1528," 1590s, from French capuchin (16c., Modern French capucin), from Italian capuccino, diminutive of capuccio "hood," augmentative of cappa (see cap (n.)). So called from the long, pointed hoods on their cloaks. As a type of South American monkey, 1785, from the shape of the hair on its head, which was thought to resemble a cowl.

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