c. 1300, matrimoine, "the married state, the relation of husband and wife, wedlock; the sacrament of marriage," from Old French matremoine "matrimony, marriage" and directly from Latin mātrimōnium "wedlock, marriage" (in plural "wives"), from mātrem (nominative māter) "mother" (see mother (n.1)) + -mōnium, suffix signifying "action, state, condition."
"nacreous inner layer of the shell of various bivalve mollusks," c. 1500, translating Medieval Latin mater perlarum, with the first element perhaps connected in popular imagination with obsolete mother (n.2) "dregs." Compare Italian madreperla, French mère-perle, Dutch parelmoer, German Perlmutter, Danish perlemor. It is the stuff of pearls but in a layer instead of a mass.
1590s, "act of killing one's mother;" 1630s, "one who kills his mother;" from French matricide, from Latin mātricida "mother-killer," and mātricidium "mother-killing," from combining form of māter "mother" (see mother (n.1)) + -cida "killer," and -cidium "a killing," from caedere "to slay" (from PIE root *kae-id- "to strike"). Related: Matricidal (adj.). Old English had moðorslaga "a matricide, a mother-slayer."
late 14c., matrone, "married woman," usually one of rank or social respectability and mature years (old enough to be the mother of a family, whether actually so or not), from Old French matrone "married woman; elderly lady; patroness; midwife," and directly from Latin mātrona "married woman, wife, matron," from māter (genitive mātris) "mother" (see mother (n.1)).
Also (15c.) "a married female saint." Sense of "female manager of a school, head nurse in a hospital, etc." is recorded by 1550s.
in Greek religion, the Olympian goddess of agriculture and useful vegetation, protectress of the social order and of marriage, mother of Persephone, from Greek Dēmētēr; the second element generally given as māter (see mother (n.1)); the first element possibly from da, Doric form of Greek gē "earth" (see Gaia), but Liddell & Scott find this "improbable" and Beekes writes, "there is no indication that [da] means 'earth', although it has also been assumed in the name of Poseidon." The Latin masc. proper name Demetrius means "son of Demeter."
in chess, "a condition of checkmate, the state of the king when he is in check and cannot move out of it," c. 1300, mat, from Old French mat, from mater "to checkmate" (see mate (v.2)).
Fool's mate, a mode of checkmate in which the tyro, moving first, is mated by his opponent's second move.—Scholar's mate, a simple mode of checkmate, sometimes practised on inexperienced players, in which the skilled player's queen, supported by a bishop, mates the tyro in four moves. [Century Dictionary]
mid-14c., "real, ordinary; earthly, drawn from the material world" (contrasted with spiritual, mental, supernatural), a term in scholastic philosophy and theology, from Old French material, materiel (14c.) and directly from Late Latin materialis (adj.) "of or belonging to matter," from Latin materia "matter, stuff, wood, timber" (see matter (n.)).
From late 14c. as "made of matter, having material existence; material, physical, substantial." From late 15c. as "important, relevant, necessary, pertaining to the matter or subject;" in the law of evidence, "of legal significance to the cause" (1580s).
"the totality of things used in the carrying out of any complex art or technique" (as distinguished from personnel), 1814, from French matériel "material," noun use of adj. matériel (see material (adj.)). A later borrowing of the same word that became material (n.). By 1819 in the specific sense of "articles, supplies, machinery, etc. used in the military."