Etymology
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vector (n.)

"quantity having magnitude and direction," 1846; earlier "line joining a fixed point and a variable point," 1704, from Latin vector "one who carries or conveys, carrier" (also "one who rides"), agent noun from past-participle stem of vehere "carry, convey" (from PIE root *wegh- "to go, move, transport in a vehicle"). Related: Vectorial.

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inequality (n.)
early 15c., "difference of rank or dignity," from Old French inequalité (14c., Modern French inégalité) and directly from Medieval Latin inaequalitas, from Latin inaequalis "unequal, unlike, different (in size); changeable, inconstant," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + aequalis "equal" (see equal). In reference to magnitude, number, intensity, etc., from 1530s.
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dimension (n.)
Origin and meaning of dimension

late 14c., dimensioun, "measurable extent, magnitude measured along a diameter," from Latin dimensionem (nominative dimensio) "a measuring," noun of action from past-participle stem of dimetri "to measure out," from dis- (see dis-) + metiri "to measure," from PIE root *me- (2) "to measure."

Sense of "bulk, size, extent, or capacity" is from 1520s, Meaning "any component of a situation" is from 1929. Related: Dimensional; dimensions.

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commensurate (adj.)

1640s, "corresponding in amount, degree, or magnitude," also "of equal size" (on the notion of "having the same boundaries"), from Late Latin commensuratus, from Latin com "with, together" (see com-) + Late Latin mensuratus, past participle of mensurare "to measure," from Latin mensura "a measuring, a measurement; thing to measure by," from mensus, past participle of metiri "to measure," from PIE root *me- (2) "to measure." Meaning "reducible to a common measure, commensurable" is from 1680s. Related: Commensurately.

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novella 

"a short novel or long short-story," 1901, from Italian; see novel (n.).

It is not quite so clear as to when and where a piece of fiction ceases to be a novella and becomes a novel. The frontiers are so vague that one is obliged to recognize a middle species, or rather a middle magnitude, which paradoxically, but necessarily enough, we call the novelette. [W.D. Howells, "Some Anomalies of the Short Story," The North American Review, vol. CLXXIII, August, 1901]
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bulk (n.)
mid-15c., "a heap; the volume or bulk of something," earlier "ship's cargo" (mid-14c.), from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse bulki "a heap; ship's cargo," from Proto-Germanic *bul-, from PIE root *bhel- (2) "to blow, swell."

Meaning extended by early confusion with obsolete bouk "belly" (from Old English buc "body, belly," from Proto-Germanic *bukaz; see bucket), which led to sense of "size, volume, magnitude of material substance," attested from mid-15c. In bulk 1670s, "loaded loose." Meaning "the greater part" (of anything) is by 1711.
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extenuate (v.)

1530s, "make thin, lean, slender, or rare; reduce in thickness or density" (the literal sense, now rare); from Latin extenuatus, past participle of extenuare "lessen, make small, reduce, diminish, detract from," from ex "out" (see ex-) + tenuare "make thin," from tenuis "thin," from PIE root *ten- "to stretch." Used over the years in a variety of literal and figurative senses in English. From 1560s as "to lessen, make smaller in degree or appearance, make less blamable, lower in importance or degree." Related: Extenuated; extenuating. Extenuating circumstances (1660s) are those which lessen the magnitude of guilt (opposed to aggravating).

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fill (v.)

Old English fyllan "to fill, make full, fill up, replenish, satisfy; complete, fulfill," from Proto-Germanic *fulljanan "to fill" (source also of Old Saxon fulljan, Old Norse fylla, Old Frisian fella, Dutch vullen, German füllen, Gothic fulljan "to fill, make full"), a derivative of adjective *fullaz "full" (see full (adj.)). Related: Filled.

To fill the bill (1882) originally was U.S. theatrical slang, in reference to a star of such magnitude his or her name would be the only one on a show's poster. To fill out "write in required matter" is recorded from 1880.

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size (n.)
c. 1300, "an ordinance to fix the amount of a payment or tax," from Old French sise, shortened form of assise "session, assessment, regulation, manner," noun use of fem. past participle of asseoir "to cause to sit," from Latin assidere/adsidere "to sit beside" (and thus to assist in the office of a judge), "sit with in counsel or office," from ad "to" (see ad-) + sedere "to sit," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit."

Probably a misdivision of l'assise as la sise. The sense of "extent, amount, volume, magnitude" (c. 1300) is from the notion of regulating something by fixing the amount of it (weights, food portions, etc.). Specific sense of "set of dimensions of a manufactured article for sale" is attested from 1590s.
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recession (n.)

1640s, "act of receding, a going back," from French récession "a going backward, a withdrawing," and directly from Latin recessionem (nominative recessio) "a going back," noun of action from past-participle stem of recedere "to go back, fall back; withdraw, depart, retire," from re- "back" (see re-) + cedere "to go" (from PIE root *ked- "to go, yield").

The sense of "temporary decline in economic activity" was a fall-of-1929 coinage, probably a noun of action from recess (v.):

The material prosperity of the United States is too firmly based, in our opinion, for a revival in industrial activity — even if we have to face an immediate recession of some magnitude — to be long delayed. [Economist, Nov. 2, 1929]

Ayto ("20th Century Words") notes, "There was more than a hint of euphemism in the coining of this term."

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