Etymology
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epode (n.)
1590s, a kind of lyric poem in which a short line follows a longer one (invented by Archilochus, also used by Horace), from Latin epodos, from Greek epodus "after-song, incantation," from epi "after" (see epi-) + odein "to sing" (see ode). Related: Epodic.
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villanelle (n.)
poetic form (or a poem in this form) of five 3-lined stanzas and a final quatrain, with only two rhymes throughout, usually of pastoral or lyric nature, 1580s, from French villanelle, from Italian villanella "ballad, rural song," from fem. of villanello "rustic," from Medieval Latin villanus "farmhand" (see villain).
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lay (n.1)
"short song," mid-13c., from Old French lai "song, lyric," of unknown origin. Perhaps from Celtic (compare Irish laid "song, poem," Gaelic laoidh "poem, verse, play") because the earliest verses so called were Arthurian ballads, but OED finds this "out of the question" and prefers a theory which traces it to a Germanic source, such as Old High German leich "play, melody, song."
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lyre (n.)
harp-like instrument, c. 1200, from Old French lire "lyre" (12c.), from Latin lyra, from Greek lyra, a foreign loan-word of uncertain origin. The thing itself is said to be Egyptian, though it became the national musical instrument of ancient Greece. In 18c.-19c. especially the symbol of lyric poetry. Lyra as the name of the ancient northern constellation supposed to resemble a lyre is attested in English from 1650s; the Lyraid (1876) meteors (c. April 20) appear to radiate from there. The lyre-bird (1853) of Australia is so called from the shape of its tail. Related: Lyrate "shaped like a lyre."
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Sapphic (adj.)

c. 1500, "of or pertaining to Sappho or her poems," especially in reference to her characteristic meter, from French saphique, from Latin Sapphicus, from Greek Sapphikos "of Sappho," in reference to Sapphō, Greek lyric poetess of the isle of Lesbos who flourished c. 600 B.C.E. and was famed for the passion and loveliness of her verse, which survives mostly in fragments. The sense of "pertaining to sexual relations between women" is from 1890s (also see Sapphism, and compare lesbian).

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Muse (n.)

late 14c., "one of the nine Muses of classical mythology," daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, protectors of the arts; from Old French Muse and directly from Latin Musa, from Greek Mousa, "the Muse," also "music, song," ultimately from PIE root *men- (1) "to think." Meaning "inspiring goddess of a particular poet" (with a lower-case m-) is from late 14c.

The traditional names and specialties of the nine Muses are: Calliope (epic poetry), Clio (history), Erato (love poetry, lyric art), Euterpe (music, especially flute), Melpomene (tragedy), Polymnia (hymns), Terpsichore (dance), Thalia (comedy), Urania (astronomy).

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jerk (n.2)

"tedious and ineffectual person," 1935, American English carnival slang, of uncertain origin. Perhaps from jerkwater "petty, inferior, insignificant" [Barnhart, OED]; alternatively from, or influenced by, verbal phrase jerk off "masturbate" [Rawson]. The lyric in "Big Rock Candy Mountain," sometimes offered as evidence of earlier use, apparently is "Where they hung the Turk [not jerk] that invented work."

A soda-jerk (1915; soda-jerker is from 1883) is so called for the pulling motion required to work the taps.

The SODA-FOUNTAIN CLERK
Consider now the meek and humble soda-fountain clerk,
Who draweth off the moistened air with nimble turn and jerk,
 
[etc., Bulletin of Pharmacy, August, 1902]
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troubadour (n.)
1727, from French troubadour (16c.) "one of a class of lyric poets in southern France, eastern Spain, and northern Italy 11c.-13c.," from Old Provençal trobador, from trobar "to find," earlier "invent a song, compose in verse," perhaps from Vulgar Latin *tropare "compose, sing," especially in the form of tropes, from Latin tropus "a song" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn"). The alternative theory among French etymologists derives the Old Provençal word from a metathesis of Latin turbare "to disturb," via a sense of "to turn up." Meanwhile, Arabists posit an origin in Arabic taraba "to sing." General sense of "one who composes or sings verses or ballads" first recorded 1826.
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melody (n.)

c. 1300, melodie, "vocal or instrumental music, a succession of agreeable musical sounds," from Old French melodie "music, song, tune" (12c.) and directly from Late Latin melodia "a pleasant song" (in Medieval Latin also "music" generally), from Greek melōidia "a singing, a chanting; a choral song, a tune for lyric poetry," from melos "song, part of song; limb, member" (a word of uncertain origin) + ōidē "song, ode" (see ode). From late 14c. as "a song of clear and balanced form." Sense of "a series of tones so related to one another as to produce a distinct musical phrase or idea, a tune" is by c. 1600. Meaning "the principal voice-part in a harmonic composition" is by 1880.

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sonnet (n.)

1557 (in title of Surrey's poems), from French sonnet (1540s) or directly from Italian sonetto, literally "little song," from Old Provençal sonet "song," diminutive of son "song, sound," from Latin sonus "sound" (from PIE root *swen- "to sound").

Originally in English also "any short lyric poem;" precise meaning is from Italian, where Petrarch (14c.) developed a scheme of an eight-line stanza (rhymed abba abba) followed by a six-line stanza (cdecde, the Italian sestet, or cdcdcd, the Sicilian sestet). Shakespeare developed the English Sonnet for his rhyme-poor native tongue: three Sicilian quatrains followed by a heroic couplet (ababcdcdefefgg). The first stanza sets a situation or problem, and the second comments on it or resolves it.

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