"system of embossed printing used as an alphabet for the blind," 1853, from Louis Braille, French musician and teacher, blind from age 3, who devised it c. 1830.
city in France, French Orléans, from Roman Aurelianum, named 3c. C.E. in honor of emperor Aurelian, who reigned from 270 to 275 and reunited Gaul with Rome. The place had formerly been called Genabum, from roots *gen- "bend" (in a river) + *apa "water." In French politics, the name of a family descended from a younger brother of Louis XIV; one of its princes reigned 1830-1848 as Louis Philippe. Hence Orleanist "an adherent of the princes of Orleans."
1811, "develop polarization in," in optics, from French polariser, coined by French physicist Étienne-Louis Malus (1775-1812) as a term in optics, from Modern Latin polaris "polar" (see polar). Transferred sense of "to accentuate a division in a group or system" is recorded from 1949 in Arthur Koestler. Related: Polarized; polarizing.
goddess of ovens in ancient Rome, from Latin fornax "furnace, oven, kiln" (from PIE root *gwher- "to heat, warm"). The dim constellation (representing a chemical furnace) was created by French astronomer Nicolas Louis de La Caille in 1752.