Etymology
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foie-gras (n.)

1818, French, short for pâté de foie gras (1827 in English), literally "pie of fat liver;" originally served in a pastry (as still in Alsace), the phrase now chiefly in English with reference to the filling. French foie "liver" is cognate with Italian fegato, from Latin *ficatum. For pâté see pâté (n.2); for gras see grease (n.).

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cirrhosis (n.)

"chronic inflammation of connective tissue," originally and especially of the liver, 1827, coined in Modern Latin by French physician René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laennec with -osis and Greek kirros "red-yellow, yellow-brown, tawny," which is of unknown origin. The form is erroneous, presuming Greek *kirrhos. So called for the orange-yellow appearance of the diseased liver. Related: Cirrhotic.

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ox-gall (n.)

"bitter fluid secreted by the liver of an ox, used in paints and coloring," 1630s, from ox + gall (n.1).

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hepar (n.)

metallic sulfide, 1796, shortened from hepar sulphuris (1690s), from Medieval Latin, from Greek hēpar "liver" (see hepatitis); so called for its color.

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splanchno- 
before vowels splanchn-, word-forming element meaning "viscera," from Greek splankhnon, usually in plural, splankhna "the innards, entrails" (including heart, lungs, liver, kidneys); related to splen (see spleen).
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glycogen (n.)
starch-like substance found in the liver and animal tissue, 1860, from French glycogène, "sugar-producer," from Greek-derived glyco- "sweet" (see glyco-) + French -gène (see -gen). Coined in 1848 by French physiologist Claude Bernard (1813-1878).
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lobe (n.)
early 15c., "a lobe of the liver or lungs," from Medieval Latin lobus "a lobe," from Late Latin lobus "hull, husk, pod," from Greek lobos "lobe, lap, slip; vegetable pod," used of lap- or slip-like parts of the body or plants, especially "earlobe," but also of lobes of the liver or lungs, a word of unknown origin. It is perhaps related to Greek leberis "husk of fruits," from PIE *logwos. Beekes writes that the proposed connection with the PIE source of English lap (n.1)) "is semantically attractive." Extended 1670s to divisions of the brain; 1889 to ice sheets. The common notion is "rounded protruding part."
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pâté (n.2)

1706, "small pie or pastry," from French pâté, from Old French paste, earlier pastée, from paste (see paste (n.)). Especially pâté de foie gras (1827), which was originally a pie or pastry filled with fatted goose liver; the word now generally is used of the filling itself.

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lobotomy (n.)

1936, coined from lobe (in the brain sense) + medical suffix -tomy "a cutting." Figurative use is attested from 1953. Lobectomy (attested from 1911) was in use earlier in reference to lobes of other organs (lungs, liver).

Now I guess I'll have to tell 'em
That I got no cerebellum
[Ramones, "Teenage Lobotomy," 1977]
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gall (n.1)

"bile, liver secretion," Old English galla (Anglian), gealla (West Saxon) "gall, bile," from Proto-Germanic *gallon "bile" (source also of Old Norse gall "gall, bile; sour drink," Old Saxon galle, Old High German galla, German Galle), from PIE root *ghel- (2) "to shine," with derivatives denoting "green, yellow," and thus "bile, gall." Informal sense of "impudence, boldness" first recorded American English 1882; but meaning "embittered spirit, rancor" is from c. 1200, from the old medicine theory of humors.

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