late 15c., residen, "to remain at a place," from Old French resider (15c.) and directly from Latin residere "sit down, settle; remain behind, rest, linger; be left," from re- "back, again" (see re-) + sedere "to sit" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit"). The meaning "to dwell permanently or for a considerable time" is attested by 1570s. Related: Resided; residing. Also from the French word are Dutch resideren, German residiren.
c. 1300, dalien, "to speak seriously, commune;" late 14c., "to talk intimately, converse politely," possibly from Anglo-French dalier "to amuse oneself," Old French dalier, dailer, which is of uncertain origin. Sense of "waste time" in any manner emerged by late 14c.; that of "to play, sport, frolic; flirt, engage in amorous exchanges" is from mid-15c. Meaning "to linger, loiter, delay (intransitive)" is from 1530s. Related: Dallied; dallying.
"making an undue or inappropriate display of learning, absurdly learned," formed in English c. 1600, from pedant + -ic. The French equivalent is pédantesque. Perhaps first attested in John Donne's "Sunne Rising," where he bids the morning sun let him and his love linger in bed, telling it, "Sawcy pedantique wretch, goe chide Late schooleboyes." Related: Pedantical (1580s); pedantically.
c. 1300, delaien, "to put off, postpone;" late 14c., "to put off or hinder for a time," from Old French delaiier, from de- "away, from" (see de-) + laier "leave, let." This is perhaps a variant of Old French laissier, from Latin laxare "slacken, undo" (see lax). But Watkins has it from Frankish *laibjan, from a Proto-Germanic causative form of PIE root *leip- "to stick, adhere." Intransitive sense of "linger, move slowly" is from c. 1500. Related: Delayed; delaying.
Who would linger by the fire, nor from toil an hour snatch
When villages play football in a merry monster match;
E'en a mere ale-drinking Saxon feels some fervour in his soul
As he watches and bets glasses on a drop-kick at the goal.
[from "A Lay of English Field Sports," by "Colonel Chasse," in The Sporting Review, June 1849]
The Dutch word is said to be cognate with Old English lutian "lurk," and related to Old English loddere "beggar;" Old High German lotar "empty, vain," luzen "lurk;" German Lotterbube "vagabond, rascal," lauschen "eavesdrop;" Gothic luton "mislead;" Old English lyðre "base, bad, wicked." Related: Loitered; loitering.
Old English dwellan "to lead into error, deceive, mislead," related to dwelian "to be led into error, go wrong in belief or judgment," from Proto-Germanic *dwaljana "to delay, hesitate," *dwelana "go astray" (source also of Old Norse dvelja "to retard, delay," Danish dvæle “to linger, dwell,” Swedish dväljas “to dwell, reside;” Middle Dutch dwellen "to stun, perplex;" Old High German twellen "to hinder, delay") from PIE *dhwel-, extended form of root *dheu- (1) "dust, cloud, vapor, smoke" (also forming words with the related notions of "defective perception or wits").
The apparent sense evolution in Middle English was through "to procrastinate, delay, be tardy in coming" (late 12c.), to "linger, remain, stay, sojourn," to "make a home, abide as a permanent resident" (mid-14c.). From late 14c. as "remain (in a certain condition or status)," as in phrase dwell upon "keep the attention fixed on." Related: Dwelled; dwelt; dwells.
It had a noun form in Old English, gedweola "error, heresy, madness." Also compare Middle English dwale "deception, trickery," from Old English dwala or from a Scandinavian cognate (such as Danish dvale "trance, stupor, stupefaction"); dwale survived into late Middle English as "a sleeping potion, narcotic drink, deadly nightshade."
late 14c., "act of dwelling in a place; one's dwelling place," from Old French residence, from Medieval Latin residentia (source also of Spanish residencia, Italian residenza), from Latin residentem (nominative residens) "residing, dwelling," present participle of residere "to settle, linger, sit down" (see reside).
Meaning "fact of having one's usual abode in a particular place" is from late 15c. The sense of "a staying in some place for the discharge of special duties or one's occupation" is also from late 14c., originally ecclesiastical, extended 19c. to professors, artists, poets, etc. The expression _____-in-residence is attested by 1954. Also borrowed into German (Residenz), Dutch (residentie).
Of things, "remain in place," 1590s. Stay put is first recorded 1843, American English. "To stay put is to keep still, remain in order. A vulgar expression" [Bartlett]. Phrase stay the course is originally (1885) in reference to horses holding out till the end of a race. Stay-stomach was (1800) "a snack."