Etymology
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letter-press (adj.)
in reference to matter printed from relief surfaces, 1840, from letter (n.1) "a type character" + press (n.). Earlier "text," as opposed to copper-plate illustration (1771).
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letter-opener (n.)
1864 as a device to slit open letter envelopes, from letter (n.1) + opener. Earlier as a government or other official on continental Europe in charge of opening and reading private mails of suspected persons and censoring them (1847).
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letter-head (n.)
also letterhead, "sheet of paper with a printed or engraved logo or address," 1868, short for letterheading (1867); from letter (n.1) + heading (n.) in the printing sense. So called because it was printed at the "head" of the sheet of paper.
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red-letter (adj.)

"having a rubricated letter; written or drawn in red ink," late 14c., from red (adj.1) + letter (n.). A red-letter day (late 14c.) originally was a saint's day, marked on church calendars in red letters. 

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lettered (adj.)
"literate, learned in letters," c. 1300, from letter (n.1). Meaning "inscribed" is from 1660s, from letter (v.).
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lettering (n.)
1640s, "act of writing;" 1811, "act of putting letters on something;" 1796, "the letters marked or written on something," verbal noun from letter (v.).
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letters (n.)
"the profession of authorship or literature," mid-13c., from plural of letter (n.); as in Latin, French. Man of letters attested from 1640s.
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literation (n.)
"representation of sounds by alphabetic letters," 1843, from Latin litera "alphabetic letter" (see letter (n.1)) + -ation.
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newsletter (n.)

also news-letter, "report containing news intended for general circulation," 1670s, from news (n.) + letter (n.). It fell from use until it was revived 20c.

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black-letter (n., adj.)
name for old-style "Gothic" fonts, 1640s, from black (adj.); so called to distinguish heavy, old-style printers' types from the ones coming into use then, which are the dominant modern forms, though a style of black letter was preserved in German into 20c.
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