Etymology
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hysteron-proteron (n.)
1560s, from Late Latin, from Greek hysteron-proteron, literally "the latter (put as) the former." A cart-before-the-horse figure of speech, in which what should come last is put first. From hysteron, neuter of hysteros "latter, second, after" (from PIE *ud-tero-, from root *ud- "up, out;" see out (adv.)) + proteron, neuter of proteros "before, former," from PIE *pro-, from root *per- (1) "forward," hence "in front of, before, first."
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Neptunian (adj.)

1650s, "pertaining to the god Neptune;" 1794 in the geological sense, referring to certain features (later confirmed as volcanic) believed to be formed or deposited by actions of water, from Neptune + -ian. Usually opposed in the latter sense to volcanic or plutonic.  "A most violent discussion in regard to this subject was carried on, during the latter third of the eighteenth century, by geologists and theologians" [Century Dictionary]. As a noun meaning "inhabitant of the planet Neptune" it is recorded from 1870.

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horsefeathers (n.)
"nonsense," 1927, said to have been coined by U.S. cartoonist Billy De Beck; perhaps a variant of horseshit "nonsense," though the latter is attested in print only from 1940s.
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brilliance (n.)
"quality of being brilliant," 1755, from brilliant + -ance. Figurative sense (of wit, intelligence, etc.) is from 1779. Distinguished from brilliancy in that the latter usually is applied to things measurable in degrees.
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slothful (adj.)

c. 1400, from sloth + -ful. Related: Slothfully; slothfulness. For the latter, Middle English had also sloth-head (c. 1300), with Middle English -hede, cognate with -hood.

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carbon monoxide (n.)
1869, so called because it consists of one carbon and one oxygen atom (as opposed to carbon dioxide, which has two of the latter). An older name for it was carbonic oxide gas.
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hornbeam (n.)
type of small tree, 1570s, from horn (n.) + beam (n.) "tree," preserving the original sense of the latter word. The tree so called in reference to its hard wood, which somewhat resembles horn.
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crown (v.)

"bestow a crown or garland upon," late Old English corounen, from Old French coroner, from corone (see crown (n.)). Related: Crowned; crowning. The latter in its sense of "that makes complete" is from 1650s.

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laughter (n.)
late 14c., from Old English hleahtor "laughter; jubilation; derision," from Proto-Germanic *hlahtraz (source also of Old Norse hlatr, Danish latter, Old High German lahtar, German Gelächter); see laugh (v.).
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philologist (n.)

1640s, "literary person, one devoted to learning or literature;" 1716, "student of language," from philology (q.v.) + -ist. Philologer (1580s in the former sense, 1650s in the latter) was formerly more common. Philologue is from 1590s; philologian is by 1830.

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