Etymology
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penultima (n.)

"last syllable but one of a word or verse, a penult," 1580s, from Latin pænultima (syllaba), "the next to the last syllable of a word or verse," from fem. of Latin adjective pænultimus "next-to-last," from pæne "almost" (a word of uncertain origin) + ultimus "final" (see ultimate).

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firn (n.)

"consolidated snow, the raw material of glaciers," 1839, literally "last year's snow, névé," from German Firn, from Swiss dialectal firn "of last year," from Middle High German virne "old," from Old High German firni, related to Old English fyrn "old," Gothic fairns "of last year," from Proto-Germanic *fur- "before" (see fore (adv.)).

The only living English relic of a useful word meaning "of last year" that was widespread in Indo-European languages (cognates: Lithuanian pernai "last year" (adv.), Greek perysi "a year ago, last year," Sanskrit parut "of last year;" also German Firnewein "wine of last year"). Old English had fyrngemynd "ancient history," more literally, "memory of long ago;" fyrnmann "man of old times;" fyrnnes "antiquity;" fyrnsægen "old saying." Middle English retained fern "long ago, formerly, of old," fern-days "days of old, former year, a year past."

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lag (v.)

"move slowly, fail to keep pace," 1520s, earlier as a noun meaning "last person" (1510s), later also as an adjective, "slow, tardy, coming behind" (1550s, as in lag-mon "last man"). All are of uncertain relationship and origin, possibly from a Scandinavian source (compare Norwegian lagga "go slowly"), or some dialectal version of last, lack, or delay. Related: Lag; lagging.

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penultimate (adj.)

"next to the last, immediately proceeding that member of a series which is the last," 1670s, from penultima (n.) on model of proximate. Earlier was penultim (mid-15c.), from Old French penultime.

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antepenultimate (adj.)

"the last but two," 1730, from antepenult (n.), 1610s, abbreviation of Latin antepænultima (syllaba) "last syllable but two in a word," from fem. of antepænultimus, from ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + pænultima, from pæne "almost" (a word of uncertain origin) + ultima "last" (see ultimate).

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lastly (adv.)

late 14c., from last (adj.) + -ly (2).

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hogmenay (n.)

"last day of December," also a refreshment given that day, 1670s, of uncertain origin.

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supper (n.)

mid-13c., soper, "the last meal of the day," from Old French soper "evening meal," noun use of infinitive soper "to eat the evening meal," which is of Germanic origin (see sup (v.1)).

Formerly, the last of the three meals of the day (breakfast, dinner, and supper); now applied to the last substantial meal of the day when dinner is taken in the middle of the day, or to a late meal following an early evening dinner. Supper is usually a less formal meal than late dinner. [OED]

Applied since c. 1300 to the last meal of Christ.

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ultimo (adv.)

"in the month preceding the present," 1610s, common in abbreviated form ult. in 18c.-19c. correspondence and newspapers, from Latin ultimo (mense) "of last (month)," ablative singular masc. of ultimus "last" (see ultimate). Earlier it was used in the sense of "on the last day of the month specified" (1580s). Contrasted with proximo "in the next (month)," from Latin proximo (mense).

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eschatology (n.)

1834, from Latinized form of Greek eskhatos "last, furthest, uttermost, extreme, most remote" in time, space, degree (from PIE *eghs-ko-, suffixed form of *eghs "out;" see ex-) + -ology. In theology, the study of the four last things (death, judgment, heaven, hell). Related: Eschatological; eschatologically.

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