Etymology
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play-day (n.)

"day given to pastime or diversion, a day exempt from work," c. 1600, from play (v.) + day.

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quarter day (n.)

mid-15c., "day that begins a quarter of the year," designated as days when rents were paid and contracts and leases began or expired, from quarter (n.1). They were, in England, Lady day (March 25), Midsummer day (June 24), Michaelmas day (Sept. 29), and Christmas day (Dec. 25); in Scotland, keeping closer to the pre-Christian Celtic calendar, they were Candlemas (Feb. 2), Whitsunday (May 15), Lammas (Aug. 1), and Martinmas (Nov. 11). Quarter in the sense "period of three months; one of the four divisions of a year" is recorded from late 14c. Related: Quarter days.

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D-day (n.)

1918, "date set for the beginning of a military operation," with D as an abbreviation of day; compare H-hour, also from the same military order of Sept. 7, 1918:

The First Army will attack at H-Hour on D-Day with the object of forcing the evacuation of the St. Mihiel salient. [Field Order No. 8, First Army, A.E.F.]

"They designate the day and hour of the operation when the day and hour have not yet been determined, or where secrecy is essential" [U.S. Army Center of Military History Web site]. Now almost exclusively of June 6, 1944.

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field-day (n.)

1747, originally a day of military exercise and review (see field (v.)); figurative sense "any day of unusual bustle, exertion, or display" [Century Dictionary] is from 1827.

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latter-day (adj.)

"belonging to recent times," 1842; see latter (adj.). Originally in Latter-day Saints, the Mormon designation for themselves.

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day-book (n.)

also daybook, "book for recording events and transactions of the day," 1570s, from day (n.) + book (n.).

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hogmenay (n.)

"last day of December," also a refreshment given that day, 1670s, of uncertain origin.

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supper (n.)

mid-13c., soper, "the last meal of the day," from Old French soper "evening meal," noun use of infinitive soper "to eat the evening meal," which is of Germanic origin (see sup (v.1)).

Formerly, the last of the three meals of the day (breakfast, dinner, and supper); now applied to the last substantial meal of the day when dinner is taken in the middle of the day, or to a late meal following an early evening dinner. Supper is usually a less formal meal than late dinner. [OED]

Applied since c. 1300 to the last meal of Christ.

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penult (adj.)

"last but one," 1530s, abbreviation of penultima. As a noun from 1570s as "last day but one of a month;" grammatical sense of "last syllable but one of a word" is by 1828.

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ultimo (adv.)

"in the month preceding the present," 1610s, common in abbreviated form ult. in 18c.-19c. correspondence and newspapers, from Latin ultimo (mense) "of last (month)," ablative singular masc. of ultimus "last" (see ultimate). Earlier it was used in the sense of "on the last day of the month specified" (1580s). Contrasted with proximo "in the next (month)," from Latin proximo (mense).

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