Etymology
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cutlass (n.)

"short sword or large knife with a flat, wide, slightly curved blade," used for cutting more than thrusting, 1590s, from French coutelas (16c.), which is probably from Italian coltellaccio "large knife," with augmentative suffix -accio + coltello "knife," from Latin cultellus "small knife," diminutive of culter "knife, plowshare," from PIE *kel-tro-, suffixed form of root *skel- (1) "to cut." Not related to cut.

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scalpel (n.)

"small, light surgical knife held like a pen," 1742, from Latin scalpellum "a surgical knife," diminutive of scalprum "knife, chisel, tool for scraping or cutting," from scalpere "to carve, cut," which is related to sculpere "to carve" (from PIE root *skel- (1) "to cut").

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switchblade (n.)
also switch-blade, type of folding pocket knife, 1932, from switch (n.) + blade. So called for the "switch" which is pressed to spring the knife open. Earlier a similar tool was known as an Arkansas toothpick (1837) and a clasp-knife (1755).
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cultellation (n.)

"the determination of the exact point on the ground vertically beneath a point at some height above it, by letting fall a knife or other pointed object," 1700, from Latin cultellus "small knife," diminutive of culter "knife, plowshare," from PIE *kel-tro-, suffixed form of root *skel- (1) "to cut."

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cutler (n.)

"craftsman whose occupation is the making of knives and other cutting instruments," c. 1400 (c. 1200 as a surname), from Anglo-French cuteler, Old French coutelier (12c., Modern French coutelier) "knife-maker," from Latin cultellarius, from cultellus "small knife," diminutive of culter "knife, plowshare," from PIE *kel-tro-, suffixed form of root *skel- (1) "to cut."

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shiv (n.)

"a razor," by 1915, possibly 1890s or earlier in underworld slang, a variant (based on pronunciation) of chive, thieves' cant word for "knife" (1670s), of unknown origin. Often said to be a Romany (Gypsy) word, from chivomengro "knife." 

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skene (n.)
ancient type of Celtic dagger found in Ireland, double-edged and leaf-like, 1520s, from Irish Gaelic scian (genitive sceine) "knife," cognate with Gaelic sgian "knife," Welsh ysgien "a slicer," from PIE *skiy-ena-, from root *skei- "to cut, split."
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pig-sticker (n.)

also pigsticker, "sharp knife, bayonet," by 1890, from pig (n.1) + agent noun from stick (v.).

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whittle (v.)
1550s, "to cut thin shavings from (something) with a knife," from Middle English whittel "a knife," especially a large one (c. 1400), variant of thwittle (late 14c.), from Old English þwitan "to cut," from Proto-Germanic *thwit- (source also of Old Norse þveita "to hew"), from PIE root *twei- "to agitate, shake, toss" (see seismo-). Figurative sense is attested from 1746. Related: Whittled; whittling.
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paring (n.)

late 14c., "act of trimming" something, also "that which is pared off;" verbal noun from pare (v.). Paring-knife is attested from 1590s.

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