1854, "a substance in a gelatinous or gluey state," from French colloide (1845), from Greek kolla "glue," which is of uncertain origin, + -oeidēs "form" (see -oid). Also an adjective, "like glue or jelly."
1620s, a type of coagulated food, from Welsh llymru "sour oatmeal jelly boiled with the husks," of uncertain origin. Later of a sweet dish in cookery (1747). Figurative use, of flattery, empty talk, is from 1740s.
1736, "drug from starch or jelly made from dried tubers of orchid-like plants," from Turkish salep, from a dialectal pronunciation of Arabic thahleb, which, according to OED, is "taken to be a shortening of khasyu 'th-thahleb orchis (lit. 'fox's testicles' ...)" and it goes on to compare a native English orchid name, dogstones.
1942, from naphthenic + palmitic, names of the two acids used in manufacture of the chemical thickening agent. See naphtha. It was used especially in mixture with gasoline to make a kind of inflammabvle jelly used in flame-throwers, incendiary bombs, etc. The verb, "to destroy with napalm," is by 1950, from the noun. Related: Napalmed; napalming.
1590s, "smooth and slippery," a dialect word, possibly a shortening of obsolete glibbery "slippery," which is perhaps from Low German glibberig "smooth, slippery," from Middle Low German glibberich, from or related to glibber "jelly," all part of the Germanic group of gl- words for "smooth, shining, joyful," from PIE root *ghel- (2) "to shine." Of words, speakers, etc., from c. 1600. Related: Glibly; glibness.
"jelly-like preparation in cookery," late 14c., from Old French blancmengier (13c.), literally "white eating," originally a dish of fowl minced with cream, rice, almonds, sugar, eggs, etc.; from blanc "white" (also used in Old French of white foods, such as eggs, cream, also white meats such as veal and chicken; see blank (adj.)) + mangier "to eat" (see manger). Attempts were made nativize it (Chaucer has blankemangere); French pronunciation is evident in 18c. variant blomange, and "the present spelling is a half attempt at restoring the French" [OED].
1530s, "preserve or confection of pulpy consistence made from quince," from French marmelade, from Portuguese marmelada "quince jelly, marmalade," from marmelo "quince," by dissimilation from Latin melimelum "sweet apple," originally "fruit of an apple tree grafted onto quince," from Greek melimelon, from meli "honey" (from PIE root *melit- "honey") + mēlon "apple" (see malic). Extended 17c. to any preserve or confection of pulpy consistence made from a citrus fruit. As a verb, "to spread with marmalade" by 1963.
I marmaladed a slice of toast with something of a flourish, and I don't suppose I have ever come much closer to saying 'Tra-la-la' as I did the lathering. [P.G. Wodehouse, "Stiff Upper Lip, Jeeves"]
Famously defined by The Chambers Dictionary as "a cake, long in shape but short in duration." Meaning "a small, oblong pastry with sweet filling and glazed or iced," 1861, from French éclair, literally "lightning," from Old French esclair "light, daylight, flash of light," verbal noun from esclairare "to light up, illuminate, make shine" (12c.), formerly esclairer, ultimately from Latin exclarare "light up, illumine," from ex "out" (see ex-) + clarus "clear" (see clear (adj.)).
Nowadays the éclair au chocolat is the version of the dessert that is typically designated by the word eclair, but Pierre Blot's 1867 cookbook also lists coffee, tea, vanilla, flavor extract, strawberry, and currant varieties, as well as noting that any fruit jelly can be used. Modern versions are usually filled by injection, but early forms were often split and the filling spread between to make a sandwich-style cake. The earliest version of the éclair in French cookbooks (where it is attested by 1856) appears to be the coffee-flavored variety, made with choux pastry.