Etymology
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Beijing 

Chinese capital, from bei "north" + jing "capital" (as opposed to Nanking, literally "southern capital").

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capitalize (v.)

"write or print in capital letters," 1764, from capital (n.1) + -ize. The meaning "convert (assets) to capital" is recorded from 1868, from capital (n.2). Related: Capitalized; capitalizing.

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overstand (v.)

"to stand over or beside," from Old English oferstandan; see over- + stand (v.). In modern Jamaican patois it is used for understand as a better description of the relationship of the person to the information or idea.

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reggae (n.)

1968, Jamaican English (first in song title "Do the Reggay" by Toots & the Maytals), perhaps [OED, Barnhart] related to rege-rege "a quarrel, protest," literally "ragged clothes," variant of raga-raga, alteration and reduplication of English rag (n.).

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decapitalize (v.)

"reduce from the rank or position of a capital city," 1870; see de- + capital (n.1) + -ize. As "to remove the financial capital from," by 1913, from capital (n.2). In reference to letters, "to change from upper case to lower case," by 1899. Related: Decapitalized; decapitalization.

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Nanking 

city in China, literally "southern capital," from Chinese nan "south" + jing "capital."

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toast (v.2)

"to propose or drink a toast," 1700, from toast (n.2). This probably is the source of the Jamaican and African-American vernacular word meaning "extemporaneous narrative poem or rap" (1962). Related: Toasted; toasting.

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Canberra 

capital of Australia, 1826, from Aborigine nganbirra "meeting place."

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capitalization (n.)

1860, "act of converting (assets) to capital," noun of action from capitalize in the financial sense. The meaning "act of writing or printing in capital letters" is recorded from 1847, from the writing sense.

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Pyongyang 

North Korean capital, from Korean p'yong "flat" + yang "land."

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