Etymology
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disquisition (n.)

c. 1600, "subject for investigation" (a sense now obsolete), also "systematic search, formal inquiry into some problem or topic," from Latin disquisitionem (nominative disquisitio) "an inquiry, investigation," noun of action from past-participle stem of disquirere "inquire," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + quaerere "seek, ask" (see query (n.)). Sense of "a long speech, a formal dissertation" first recorded 1640s. Related: Disquisitional.

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carpet (v.)
"to cover with or as with a carpet," 1620s, from carpet (n.). Meaning "call to reprimand, make a subject of investigation" is from 1823. Related: Carpeted; carpeting.
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gnosis (n.)

"knowledge," especially "special knowledge of spiritual mysteries," 1703, from Greek gnōsis "a knowing, knowledge; a judicial inquiry, investigation; a being known," in Christian writers, "higher knowledge of spiritual things," from PIE *gnō-ti-, from root *gno- "to know."

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discussion (n.)

mid-14c., discussioun, "examination, investigation, judicial trial," from Old French discussion "discussion, examination, investigation, legal trial" and directly from Medieval Latin discussionem (nominative discussio) "examination, discussion," in classical Latin, "a shaking," noun of action from past-participle stem of discutere "strike asunder, break up," in Late Latin and Medieval Latin also "to discuss, examine, investigate," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + quatere "to shake" (see quash).

Meaning "a talking over, debating" in English first recorded mid-15c. Sense evolution in Latin appears to have been from "smash apart" to "scatter, disperse," then in post-classical times (via the mental process involved) to "investigate, examine," then to "debate."

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micrology (n.)

1650s, "hair splitting, exaggerated attention to petty things," from Latinized form of Greek mikrologia "pettiness, care for trifles," from mikros (see micro-) + -logia (see -logy). By 1849 as "the part of science devoted to microscopic investigation," a separate coinage from microscope. Related: Micrological.

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ascertain (v.)
early 15c., "to inform, to give assurance" (a sense now obsolete), from Anglo-French acerteiner, Old French acertener "to assure, certify" (13c.), from a- "to" (see ad-) + certain "sure, assured" (see certain). Meaning "find out for sure by experiment or investigation" is first attested 1794. Related: Ascertained; ascertaining.
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puzzle (v.)

1590s, pusle "bewilder, confound, perplex with difficult problems or questions," possibly frequentative of pose (v.) in obsolete sense of "perplex" (compare nuzzle from nose). To puzzle (something) out "resolve or discover by long cogitation or careful investigation" is by 1781. Related: Puzzled; puzzling.

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gadolinium (n.)
metallic element, with element ending -ium + gadolinia, an earth named 1886 by J.C. Marginac in honor of Johan Gadolin (1760-1852), Finnish mineralogist and chemist, who in 1794 first began investigation of the earth (subsequently called gadolinite, 1802) which eventually yielded this element and several others.
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exploration (n.)

"act of exploring, examination, or investigation," especially for the purpose of discovery and specifically of an unknown country or part of the earth, 1540s, from French exploration and directly from Latin explorationem (nominative exploratio) "an examination," noun of action from past-participle stem of explorare "investigate, examine" (see explore). Alternative explorement is from 1640s.

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inquisition (n.)
late 14c., "judicial investigation, act or process of inquiring," from Old French inquisicion "inquiry, investigation" (12c., Modern French inquisition), from Latin inquisitionem (nominative inquisitio) "a searching into, a seeking; legal examination, a seeking of grounds for accusation," noun of action from past participle stem of inquirere (see inquire).

In Church history, inquisitors were appointed from 382 C.E. to root out heretics; the ecclesiastical court appointed 13c. by Innocent III to suppress heresy never operated in Britain. The English word began to be used in this sense (and with a capital initial letter) after c. 1500, and usually refers to the office's reorganization 1478-1483 in Spain, where it fell under the control of the state as what is commonly called the Spanish Inquisition, noted especially for its severity, secrecy, and the number of its victims.
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