"room appropriated for the reception of company," 1640s, short for withdrawing room (16c.; see withdraw), into which ladies would retire after dinner. Earlier in the sense of "private room" as draw-chamber (mid-15c.); drawyng chaumber (early 15c.).
"position from which a thing is or is supposed to be viewed," 1727, translating French point de vue, a loan-translation of Latin punctum visus. Figurative use "state of mind, predisposition (conscious or not)" is from 1760. The Latin phrase was translated into German as Gesichtspunkt.
writ concerning a sum awarded in judgment (often requiring seizure and sale of property for debt), Latin, literally "cause it to be done, cause to be made," the first words of the writ, from Latin fieri "to be made, come into being" (see fiat). Second word from facere "to do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").
1640s, "continue to advance," also "manage, be engaged in," from carry (v.) + on (adv.). The meaning "conduct oneself in a wild and thoughtless manner" is by 1828. Carryings-on is from 1660s as "questionable doings," from 1866 as "riotous behavior." As an adjective, carry-on, in reference to luggage that may be brought into the passenger compartment of an airliner, is attested by 1965.
to eat humble pie (1830) is from umble pie (1640s), pie made from umbles "edible inner parts of an animal" (especially deer), considered a low-class food. The similar sense of similar-sounding words (the "h" of humble (adj.) was not then pronounced) converged to make the pun. Umbles is Middle English numbles "offal," with loss of n- through assimilation into preceding article.
also short-circuit, 1854, in electricity, "a shunt connecting two parts of an electric current so as to carry a greater part of it," from short (adj.) + circuit (n.). As a verb, "introduce a shunt of low resistance into an electric current," from 1867; intransitive sense from 1902; in the figurative sense by 1899. Related: Short-circuited; short-circuiting.
1660s, cast iron, from iron (n.) + cast (adj.) "made by melting and being left to harden in a mold" (1530s), past-participle adjective from cast (v.) in its sense "to throw something (in a particular way)," c. 1300, especially "form metal into a shape by pouring it molten" (1510s). From 1690s as an adjective, "made of cast-iron;" figurative sense of "inflexible, unyielding" is from 1830.
"police informer," 1859, American English; earlier "one who betrays the unwary (or is used to betray them)," 1821, originally a decoy bird (1812); said to be from decoys being fastened to stools to lure other pigeons. But perhaps related to stall "decoy bird" (c. 1500), especially "a pigeon used to entice a hawk into the net" (see stall (n.2)). Also see pigeon.