Etymology
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internal (adj.)
early 15c., "extending toward the interior," from Medieval Latin internalis, from Latin internus "within, inward, internal," figuratively "domestic," expanded from pre-Latin *interos, *interus "on the inside, inward," from PIE *en-ter- (source also of Old Church Slavonic anter, Sanskrit antar "within, between," Old High German unter "between," and the "down" sense of Old English under); suffixed (comparative) form of root *en "in."

Meaning "situated within" is from 1590s. Meaning "of or pertaining to the domestic affairs of a country (as in internal revenue) is from 1795; the notion is "pertaining to the subject itself; independent of others." Internal-combustion in reference to an engine in which fuel is burned inside it, is from 1884. Related: Internally.
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interneuron (n.)
1939, from neuron + first element from internuncial (adj.) "communicating between different parts of the body," from Latin internuncius "a messenger, mediator," from inter "between" (see inter-) + nuntius "messenger" (from PIE root *neu- "to shout").
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internet (n.)
1984, "the linked computer networks of the U.S. Defense Department," shortened from internetwork, inter-network, which was used from 1972 in reference to (then-hypothetical) networks involving many separate computers. From inter- "between" + network (n.). Associated Press style guide decapitalized it from 2016.
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international (adj.)

1780, coined by Jeremy Bentham from inter- "between" + national (adj.). In the phrase international jurisprudence. He footnotes the word with:

The word international, it must be acknowledged, is a new one; though, it is hoped, sufficiently analogous and intelligible. It is calculated to express, in a more significant way, the branch of law which goes commonly under the name of the law of nations: an appellation so uncharacteristic, that, were it not for the force of custom, it would seem rather to refer to internal jurisprudence. [Bentham, "Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation"]

As a noun and with a capital -i-, it is short for International Working Men's Association, a socialistic worker's movement with global aims, the first chapter of which was founded in London by Marx in 1864. The group lends its name to "The Internationale" (from fem. of French international, which is from English), the socialist hymn, written 1871 by Eugène Pottier. International Dateline is from 1882. Related: Internationally (1821).

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internecine (adj.)
1660s, "deadly, destructive," from Latin internecinus "very deadly, murderous, destructive," from internecare "kill or destroy," from inter (see inter-) + necare "kill" (from PIE root *nek- (1) "death").

Considered by OED as misinterpreted in Johnson's Dictionary [1755], which defined it as "endeavouring mutual destruction," but a notion of "mutually destructive" has been imported into the word in English because in English inter- usually conveys the idea of "mutual." The Latin prefix is said to have had here only an intensive sense; "the Latin word meant merely of or to extermination ... without implying that of both parties" [Fowler].
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internationalize (v.)
1864, from international (adj.) + -ize. Related: Internationalized; internationalizing.
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