1620s, "not direct or immediate," from consequent (Latin consequentia) + -al (1). Sense of "following as an effect or result" is from 1650s. Of persons, "self-important," 1758, from obsolete sense in reference to things, "important, pregnant with consequences" (1728). Related: Consequentially (c. 1600).
"act or principle of removing local or special functions of government from immediate control of central authority," 1839, from de- + centralization. Decentralisation is attested by 1835 in German, in reference to France, but the word does not seem to appear in French before the earliest English dates.
"a primary division of the plant or animal kingdom, a genetically related tribe or race of organisms," 1868, Modern Latin, coined by French naturalist Georges Léopole Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert, Baron Cuvier (1769-1832) from Greek phylon "race, stock," related to phylē "tribe, clan" (see phylo-). The immediate source of the English word probably is from German.
1590s (implied in proximately), "closely neighboring; next, immediate, without intervention of a third," from Late Latin proximatus, past participle of proximare "to draw near, approach," from proximus "nearest, next; most direct; adjoining," figuratively "latest, most recent; next, following; most faithful," superlative of prope "near" (see propinquity). Meaning "coming next in a chain of causation" is by 1660s. Related: Proximately.