Etymology
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rantallion (n.)
"One whose scrotum is so relaxed as to be longer than his penis, i. e. whose shot pouch is longer than the barrel of his piece." ["Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," Grose, 1785]
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Aesop 
Latinized form of Greek Aisopos, semi-legendary 6c. B.C.E. fablist. He was reputedly a slave, and very ugly; his stories were known to Herodotus and Aristophanes, but no direct writing of his survives.
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redemptioner (n.)

"one who is or may be redeemed or set at liberty," specifically, in U.S. history, "indentured servant," 1775, from redemption + -er (1).

REDEMPTIONER. One who redeems himself or purchases his release from debt or obligation to the master of a ship by his services; or one whose services are sold to pay the expenses of his passage to America. [Webster, 1830]
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major (n.)

military rank above captain and below lieutenant colonel, 1640s, from French major, short for sergent-major, originally a higher rank than at present, from Medieval Latin major "chief officer, magnate, superior person," from Latin maior "an elder, adult," noun use of the adjective (see major (adj.)).

His chief duties consist in superintending the exercises of his regiment or battalion, and in putting in execution the commands of his superior officer. His ordinary position in the line is behind the left wing. [Century Dictionary, 1897]

The musical sense is attested by 1797.

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Esau 
biblical son of Isaac and Rebecca, elder twin who sold his birthright to his brother Jacob for "a mess of pottage" (Genesis xxv), hence "used symbolically for: one who prefers present advantage to permanent rights or interests" [OED].
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totem (n.)
animal or natural object considered as the emblem of a family or clan, 1760, from Algonquian (probably Ojibwa) -doodem, in odoodeman "his sibling kin, his group or family," hence, "his family mark;" also attested in French c. 1600 in form aoutem among the Micmacs or other Indians of Nova Scotia. Totem pole is 1808, in reference to west coast Canadian Indians.
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mollycoddle (v.)

also molly-coddle, by 1839 (implied in mollycoddling), from a noun (by 1828) meaning "overly pampered, fastidious, effeminate male," from Molly (pet name formation from Mary), which had been used contemptuously at least since 1707 for "a milksop, an effeminate man" (see molly (n.1)) + coddle (q.v.). Related: Mollycoddled.

All his pursuits had been sedentary; for he never went out but with his mother. He was not allowed to stroll about the farm with his father, lest he should get his clothes dirty and his feet wet. In short, he was what Giles Darman pronounced him to be—"a little mollycoddle." ["Babbington Droneham," Hood's Magazine, March 1844]
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plutocrat (n.)

"person who rules or sways a community or society by virtue of his wealth; person possessing power or influence solely or mainly on account of his riches," 1838, a back-formation from plutocracy. Related: Plutocratic (1843); plutocratical (1833).

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ephebic (adj.)

1880, from Latinized form of Greek ephebikos "of or for an ephebe," from ephebos "one arrived at puberty, one of age 18-20," from epi "upon" (see epi-) + hēbē "early manhood," from PIE *yegw-a- "power, youth, strength." In classical Athens, a youth of 18 underwent his dokimasia, had his hair cut off, and was enrolled as a citizen. His chief occupation for the next two years was garrison duty.

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Byronic (adj.)

1823, pertaining to, characteristic of, or resembling British poet George Gordon, 6th Baron Byron (1788-1824) or his poetry.

Perfect she was, but as perfection is
  Insipid in this naughty world of ours,
Where our first parents never learn'd to kiss
  Till they were exiled from their earlier bowers,
Where all was peace, and innocence, and bliss
  (I wonder how they got through the twelve hours),
Don Jose like a lineal son of Eve,
  Went plucking various fruit without her leave.
[from "Don Juan"]
It was on the Continent that Byron was influential, and it is not in England that his spiritual progeny is to be sought. To most of us, his verse seems often poor and his sentiment often tawdry, but abroad his way of feeling and his outlook on life were transmitted and developed and transmuted until they became so wide-spread as to be factors in great events. [Bertrand Russell, "A History of Western Philosophy," 1945]
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