1530s, "an agreement on specified terms;" 1570s, "articles of agreement;" from French capitulation, noun of action from capituler "agree on specified terms," from Medieval Latin capitulare "to draw up in heads or chapters," hence "arrange conditions," from capitulum "chapter," in classical Latin "heading," literally "a little head," diminutive of caput (genitive capitis) "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head"). From 1640s in narrowed sense "the making of terms of surrender; a yielding to an enemy upon stipulated terms."
Used from mid-17c. especially in law, and there via its appearance at the head of legal document involving seizure, deposition, etc. ("Certificate of caption"), the sense was extended to "the beginning of any document," and thence to "heading of a chapter or section of an article" (1789), and, especially in U.S., "description or title below an illustration" (1919).
Often of terms of surrender, and thus it came to mean "to yield to an enemy on stipulated terms" (1680s). Related: Capitulated; capitulating. Compare chapter.
c. 1300, robryk, ribrusch, rubryke, "directions in a liturgical book for participation in religious services" (which often were written in red ink), from Old French rubrique, rubriche "rubric, title" (13c.) and directly from Latin rubrica "red ochre, red coloring matter," from ruber (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy").
The meaning "title or heading of a book" (also originally often printed in red) is from early 15c. The transferred sense of "general rule; descriptive title" is by 1831.Related: Rubrical.
"a long, rambling discourse; incoherent harangue," 1736, apparently from an altered, Kentish colloquial survival of ragman roll "long list, roster, or catalogue" (c. 1500). The origins of this are in Middle English rageman "document recording accusations or offenses," also "an accuser" (late 13c.). For this, Middle English Compendium compares Old Norse rogs-maðr "a slanderer," from older *vrogs-mannr. With folk-etymology alterations along the way.
By late 14c. rageman was the name of a game involving a long roll of verses, each descriptive of personal character or appearance. In Anglo-French c. 1300 Ragemon le bon, "Ragemon the good," is the heading on one set of verses, suggesting a characterization. The sense was transferred to "foolish activity or commotion" generally by 1939.
late 14c., propinquite, "nearness in relation, kinship," later also "nearness in place, physical nearness" (early 15c.), from Old French propinquite (13c.) and directly from Latin propinquitatem (nominative propinquitas) "nearness, vicinity; relationship, affinity," from propinquus "near, neighboring," from prope "near," with loss of second -r- by dissimilation, from PIE *propro "on and on, ever further" (source also of Sanskrit pra-pra "on and on," Greek pro-pro "before, on and on"), from root *per- (1) "forward," hence "in front of, toward, near." The signification of the suffix -inquus is unclear.
Nothing propinks like propinquity [Ian Fleming, chapter heading in "Diamonds are Forever," 1956; the phrase was popularized 1960s by U.S. diplomat George Ball]
1680s, "one who flees to a refuge or shelter or place of safety; one who in times of persecution or political disorder flees to a foreign country for safety," from French refugié, a noun use of the past participle of refugier "to take shelter, protect," from Old French refuge "hiding place," from Latin refugium "a taking refuge; place to flee back to," from re- "back" (see re-) + fugere "to flee" (see fugitive (adj.)) + -ium , neuter ending in a sense of "place for."
In English, the word was first applied to French Huguenots who fled persecution in their native country after the revocation (1685) of the Edict of Nantes. The word meant "one seeking asylum" until 1914, when it evolved to mean "one fleeing home" (first applied in this sense to civilians in Flanders heading west to escape fighting in World War I). In Australian slang from World War II, reffo.
Old English help (m.), helpe (f.) "assistance, succor," from Proto-Germanic *helpo (source also of Old Norse hjalp, Swedish hjälp, Old Frisian helpe, Dutch hulp, Old High German helfa, German Hilfe), from the source of help (v.).
The use of help as euphemism for "servant" is American English, 1640s (originally in New England). Bartlett (1848) describes it as "The common name in New England for servants, and for the operatives in a cotton or woollen factory." Most early 19c. English writers travelling in America seem to have taken a turn at explaining this to the home folks.
A domestic servant of American birth, and without negro blood in his or her veins ... is not a servant, but a 'help.' 'Help wanted,' is the common heading of advertisements in the North, when servants are required. [Chas. Mackay, "Life and Liberty in America," 1859].
But help also meant "assistant, helper, supporter" in Middle English (c. 1200).