late 12c., present-participle adjective from hang (v.). Hanging gardens (of Babylon), one of the wonders of the world, is Latin pensiles horti, Greek kremastoi kepoi. Hanging judge first recorded 1848.
late 13c., "a loop of rope" (in nautical use), probably from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse hönk "a hank, coil," hanki "a clasp (of a chest);" ultimately related to hang (v.). From 1550s as a length of yarn or thread.
also hangdog, 1670s, apparently "befitting a hang-dog," that is, a despicable, degraded fellow, so called either from being fit only to hang a dog (with construction as in cutthroat, daredevil) or of being a low person (i.e. dog) fit only for hanging. The noun, however, is attested only from 1680s.
also hang-over, 1894, "a survival, a thing left over from before," from hang (v.) + over. Meaning "after-effect of excessive drinking" is attested by 1902, American English, on notion of something left over from the night before. As an adjective, in reference to a person, overhung (1964) has been used but is rare; that word meaning generally "placed so as to project or jut out" (1708).
early 15c., "one who hangs (something)," especially "executioner," later also "one who chooses pictures for an exhibition;" agent noun from hang (v.). Meaning "something that is suspended" is late 15c. Meaning "thing from which something is hung" is from 1690s. Meaning "loop or strap in a garment for hanging on a peg" is from 1680s; of wood or wire coat or dress hangers from 1873. Hanger-on is from 1540s.
also cliffhanger, "suspenseful situation," 1950, a transferred use from an earlier meaning "movie serial" (1937), from cliff + hang (v.). In some U.S. continued-next-week silent cinema serials in the "Perils of Pauline" days, the episode often ended with the heroine "hanging over a cliff from a fraying rope through which the villain was sawing with a dull knife, to be saved by Crane Wilbur or Milton Sills" [Collier's magazine, July 6, 1946].
c. 1600, "linger in expectation;" 1640s, "have a longing or craving for," of unknown origin. Probably from Flemish hankeren, related to Dutch hunkeren "to hanker, to long for," which is perhaps an intensive or frequentative of Middle Dutch hangen "to hang" (see hang (v.)). If so, the notion is of "lingering about" with longing or craving. Compare English hang (v.) in hang on (someone's) every word. Related: Hankered; hankering.
"attached so as to hang down, suspended in air," past-participle adjective from hang (v.). Meaning "furnished with hangings" is from 1640s; meaning "having (impressive) male genitals" is from 1640s, originally often of animals; of a jury, "unable to agree," 1838, American English. Hung-over (also hungover) in the drinking sense is from 1950 (see hangover). Hung-up is from 1878 as "delayed;" by 1961 as "obsessed."
early 12c., Stanenges, literally "stone gallows," perhaps so called from fancied resemblance to old-style gallows with two posts, with the second element related to the verb hang. Some antiquarians suggest the notion may be of "supported in the air, that which hangs in the air" (compare henge-clif for Latin præruptum), in reference to the lintel stones, but the order of the elements and the inflection is against this. An ancient name for it was the Giant's Dance.