Etymology
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archduchess (n.)
1610s, modeled on French archiduchesse; see arch- "chief" + duchess. In later use generally "a princess of the reigning family of Austria," translating German Erzherzogin. Compare archduke, which is the masc. form.
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grandmother (n.)
early 15c., from grand- + mother (n.1), probably on analogy of French grand-mère. Replaced earlier grandame (c. 1200) and Old English ealdemodor.
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duchy (n.)

mid-14c., "territory ruled by a duke or duchess," from Old French duché (12c.), from Medieval Latin ducatus "territory of a duke," from Latin dux "leader" (see duke (n.)).

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grandad (n.)
also granddad, 1793, from grand- + dad. Grand dada attested from 1690s. Grandaddy is attested from 1751; figuratively (in grandaddy of all _____) from 1898.
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gran (2)
Italian, the form of grand before nouns.
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grandparent (n.)
1802, from grand- + parent (n.). Related: Grandparents; grandparental.
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grandma (n.)
1793, shortening of grandmama (1749), childish or familiar form of grandmother (see grand- + mama).
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G.A.R. 
1867, abbreviation of Grand Army of the Republic, the organization founded by union veterans of the American Civil War. The Grand Army was the name given (on the French model) to the army that organized in Washington in 1861 to put down the rebellion.
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