Etymology
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stop-and-go (adj.)
1926, originally a reference to traffic signals; see stop (v.), go (v.). Stop-go in same sense is from 1918.
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go out (v.)
early 13c., "leave home," from go (v.) + out (adv.). Meaning "become extinct, expire" is from c. 1400.
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go-cart (n.)
also gocart, 1670s, originally "a litter, sedan chair;" also "an infant's walker" (1680s), from go + cart (n.). Later also of hand carts (1759). The modern form go-kart (1959) was coined in reference to a kind of miniature racing car with a frame body and a two-stroke engine.
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go over (v.)
1580s, "review point by point;" see go (v.) + over (adv.). Meaning "be successful" is from 1923.
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go-getter (n.)
1910, American English, from go + agent noun from get (v.). Goer, with essentially the same meaning, is attested from late 14c.
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go together (v.)
1520s, "accompany," see go (v.) + together (adv.). From 1710 as "agree with, harmonize with;" 1899 as "be courting."
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go down (v.)
c. 1300, "droop, descend," from go (v.) + down (adv.). Meaning "decline, fail" is from 1590s. Sense of "to happen" is from 1946, American-English slang. Go down on "perform oral sex on" is from 1916.
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no-go (adj.)

"where it is forbidden to go," 1971, from no + go (v.). Earlier it was a noun phrase for an impracticable situation (1870) and a type of horse race (by 1860).

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go south (v.)
"vanish, abscond," 1920s, American English, probably from mid-19c. notion of disappearing south to Mexico or Texas to escape pursuit or responsibility, reinforced by Native American belief (attested in colonial writing mid-18c.) that the soul journeys south after death.
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go off (v.)
1570s, of firearms, etc., "explode, be discharged;" see go (v.) + off (adv.); meaning "depart" is c. 1600; that of "deteriorate in condition" is from 1690s; that of "reprimand" is from 1941 (originally with at, since c. 2000 more often with on).
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