Etymology
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up (adj.)

c. 1300, "dwelling inland or upland," from up (adv.). Meaning "going up" is from 1784. From 1815 as "excited, exhilarated, happy," hence "enthusiastic, optimistic." Up-and-coming "promising" is from 1848. Musical up-tempo (adj.) is recorded from 1948.

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gang-plank (n.)

also gangplank, 1842, American English, from gang in its nautical sense of "a path for walking, passage" (see gangway) + plank. Replacing earlier gang-board.

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Gang of Four 

1976, translating Chinese sirenbang, the nickname given to the four leaders of the Cultural Revolution who took the fall in Communist China after the death of Mao.

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mark-up (n.)

also markup, "amount added by a retailer to cover overhead and provide profit," 1899, from the verbal phrase in this sense (by 1870); see mark (v.) + up (adv.).

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grow up (v.)

"advance toward maturity," 1530s, from grow (v.) + up (adv.). As a command to be sensible, from 1951.

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hang up (v.)

c. 1300, "suspend (something) so that it is supported only from above;" see hang (v.) + up (adv.); telephone sense by 1911. The noun hang-up "psychological fixation" is first attested 1959, from notion of being suspended in one place.

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sign-up (n.)

"action of signing up; number who have signed up," 1940, from the verbal phrase meaning "to enroll, enlist," which is attested by 1903; see sign (v.) + up (adv.).

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cover-up (n.)

also coverup, "means or act of concealing" some event or activity, 1922, from the verbal phrase (1872), from cover (v.) + up (adv.).

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pop-up (n.)

from 1906 as a type of baseball hit; from pop (v.) + up (adv.). As an adjective from 1934 (of a children's book, later toasters, etc.).

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shut up (v.)

c. 1400, "keep from view or use, render inaccessible" early 15c., "to lock up, confine," from shut (v.) + up (adv.). The meaning "cause to stop talking" is from 1814 (Jane Austen). The intransitive meaning "cease from speaking" is from 1840, also as a command to be silent, sometimes colloquialized in print as shuddup (1940). Put up or shut up "defend yourself or be silent" is U.S. slang, by 1868.

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