Etymology
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Abba 

Biblical title of honor, literally "father," used as an invocation of God, from Latin abba, from Greek abba, from Aramaic (Semitic) abba "the father, my father," emphatic state of abh "father." Also a title in the Syriac and Coptic churches.

It is used in the New Testament three times (Mark xiv. 36, Rom. viii. 15, Gal. iv. 6), in each instance accompanied by its translation, "Abba, Father," as an invocation of the Deity, expressing close filial relation. Either through its liturgical use in the Judeo-Christian church or through its employment by the Syriac monks, it has passed into general ecclesiastical language in the modified form of abbat or abbot .... [Century Dictionary]
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sockdolager (n.)

1830, "a decisive blow" (also, figuratively "a conclusive argument"), fanciful formation from sock (v.1) "hit hard," perhaps via a comical mangling of doxology, on a notion of "finality." The meaning "something exceptional" is attested from 1838.

Sockdologizing likely was nearly the last word President Abraham Lincoln heard. During the performance of Tom Taylor's "Our American Cousin," assassin John Wilkes Booth (who knew the play well) waited for the laugh-line:

Don't know the manners of good society, eh? Well, I guess I know enough to turn you inside out, old gal—you sockdologizing old man-trap.

Amid the noise as the audience responded, Booth fired the fatal shot.

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goal (n.)
1530s, "end point of a race," of uncertain origin. It appears once before this (as gol), in a poem from early 14c. and with an apparent sense of "boundary, limit." Perhaps from Old English *gal "obstacle, barrier," a word implied by gælan "to hinder" and also found in compounds (singal, widgal). That would make it a variant or figurative use of Middle English gale "a way, course." Also compare Old Norse geil "a narrow glen, a passage." Or from Old French gaule "long pole, stake," which is from Germanic. Sports sense of "place where the ball, etc. is put to score" is attested from 1540s. Figurative sense of "object of an effort" is from 1540s.
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gala (n.)
1620s, "festive dress or attire" (obsolete), from French en gala, perhaps from Old French gale "merriment," from galer "rejoice, make merry" (see gallant). Klein suggests the French word is from Italian gala (as in phrase vestito di gala "robe of state"), perhaps from Arabic khil'a "fine garment given as a presentation." Sense of "festive occasion" (characterized by display of finery) first recorded 1777. Quasi-adjectival use in gala day "day of festivities," etc.
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gallimaufry (n.)
"a medley, hash, hodge-podge," 1550s, from French galimafrée "hash, ragout, dish made of odds and ends," from Old French galimafree, calimafree "sauce made of mustard, ginger, and vinegar; a stew of carp" (14c.), which is of unknown origin. Perhaps from Old French galer "to make merry, live well" (see gallant) + Old North French mafrer "to eat much," from Middle Dutch maffelen [Klein]. Weekley sees in the second element the proper name Maufré. Hence, figuratively, "any inconsistent or absurd medley."
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Gallo-Roman (adj.)
"belonging to Gaul when it was part of the Roman Empire," from combining form of Gaul + Roman. In reference to a language, and as a noun, the language spoken in France from the end of the fifth century C.E. to the middle of the ninth, a form of Vulgar Latin with local modifications and additions from Gaulish that then, in the region around Paris, developed into what linguists call Old French.
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galley-slave (n.)
1560s, from galley (n.) in the "ship" sense + slave (n.). The ships were often rowed by slaves or convicts.
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gallipot (n.)
"small glazed pot," mid-15c., of uncertain origin; perhaps from French, perhaps literally "galley pot," meaning one imported from the Mediterranean on galleys.
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Gallomania (n.)

"excessive or undue enthusiasm for France and all things French," 1797, from combining form of Gaul + mania. Jefferson used adjective Gallomane (1787). Compare Anglomania, which might have served as the model for this word.

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